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Basis of Siddhar Science of Yoga and Medicine:
The word 'SIDDHA' represents the TOTAL PERFECTION. Siddha means a perfected one who undertook extensive and systematic study of nature and its elements from which they developed in depth and extraordinary knowledge of highly systemized medicines. The knowledge of herbal plants and minerals was of a very high order.  Siddha medicine recognizes predominance of vatham, pitham and kapam. Pulse reading was considerably developed by the Siddhas and was used in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The basic concept of Siddha system of medicine is Food is Medicine - Medicine is Food"
The aim of the Siddhar System of life is that man must reconcile the antagonistic tendencies of his earthly individual nature and of his divine transcendent essence by satisfying the antithetical claims of spheres, the natural and the super-natural: the phenomenal realm of body and psyche, the imperishable essence which forms man’s inherent being.
The Siddhars’ research on nature of existence, truth and knowledge were not diverted from their discoveries in the field of medicine. Siddhars achieved mastery over nature, through Yoga and through medicine. MEDITATION AND MEDICINE both are inseparable.
Medicines which had been prepared by Siddhars were classified into two.
*     for diseases
*     Enlightenment
 Causes of Diseases:
*     Diseases due to past karma
*     Diseases caused by evil influence
*     Derangement of the three humors
*     Psychological causes
*     Astral influences
*     Poisonous elements
                                   
The basic theory of Siddhars is that human being is an integral part of the universe. That is, if the universe is macrocosm then the human body is microcosm. Whatever element that goes into the composition of the universe can all be found within the human body. That is, the five elements that are in the universe are the ones that are within the human body as well and ultimately control the behavior of human both physically and mentally. Any change in the elemental condition of the external world has its corresponding change in the human organism.
*     The external air corresponds to the internal Vayu;
*     The external heat corresponds to the internal Pitta; and
*     The external water corresponds to the internal phlegm (kapha)
All diseases are caused by the mixture of the three cardinal humors viz., Wind (Vayu), Bile (Pitta) and Phlegm (Kapha).  These three humors are called in Tamil ‘Muppini’ – Tridosha. They are the three fundamental principles and essential factors in the composition and constitution of the human body.
The three humors maintain the upkeep of the human body through their combined functioning, when deranged; they bring about diseases peculiar to their influences; when in equilibrium freedom from disease.
Why Siddhars combined meditation and medicine together? What would happen if one practices meditation without medicine? Why medicine is required for meditation?
According to Thirumoolar,
*     Medicine is that which treats the disorders of the physical body;
*     Medicines that which treats the disorders of the mind;
*     Medicine is that which prevents illness;
*     Medicine is that which enables immortality
To rejuvenate the body and to bring about its immortalization, special “KAYA KALPA” treatments were developed by the Siddhars.
These included:
*     Preservation of vital energies of the body by diverting the internal secretions through controlled breathing exercises – PRANAYAMA AND HATHA YOGA.
*     Conservation and transmutation of sperm and sexual energy through celibacy and tantric yoga practices.
*     Use of three consolidated mineral salts, known as “MUPPU” in Tamil, prepared according to elaborate processes.
*     Use of calcined powders prepared from metals and minerals such as mercury, sulphur, mica, gold, copper, iron etc.
*     Use of drugs prepared from certain rare Indian herbs.

Diagnosis of diseases
In diagnosis, examination of eight items is required which is commonly known as astasthana-pariksa. These are:
*     Nadi (pulse): the confirmatory method recorded on the radial artery.
*     Kan (eyes): muddy conjunctiva, yellowish or red in pitham, pale in kapha.
*     Na (tongue): black in vatham, yellow or red in pitham, white in kapam, ulcerated in anemia.
*     Varna (color): dark in vatham, yellow or red in pitham, pale in kapam.
*     Svara (voice): normal in vatham, high pitched in pitham, low pitched in kapam, slurred in alcoholism.
*     Sparisam (touch): dry in vatham, warm in pitham, chill in kapha, sweating in different parts of the body.
*     Mala (stool): black stools indicate vatham, yellow pitham, pale in kapha, dark red in ulcer and shiny in terminal illness.
*     Neer (urine): early morning urine is examined; straw color indicates indigestion, reddish yellow excessive heat, rose in blood pressure, saffron color in jaundice and looks like meat washed water in renal disease.

Methods of Treatment:
The following lines of treatment have been in practice in Siddha medicine.
*     Using medicines like Churanam, Kudineer, Ashes, Calcinations etc. made of herbs.
*     Physiotherapy - Thokkanam and Varma, the Siddha way of Touch therapy, Medicated Oil application, Fomentation, Herbal Steam Bath etc.
*     Using medicines like Parpam, Chenduram, Churanam etc. made of minerals especially of metals.
According to therapies the treatments of Siddha medicines could be further categorized into following categories such as
*     Purgative therapy,
*     Emetic therapy,
*     Fasting therapy,
*     Steam therapy,
*     Physical therapy,
*     Solar therapy,
*     Blood letting therapy and
*     Yoga therapy, etc.

According to Siddhars, the ways of curing diseases are as follows:
  1. Herbs – Moolikai
  2. Metals – Ulokam - reduced to a powder through calcinations; Extracts or essences
  3. Arsenics – Bashanam
  4. Consolidated salts – UPPU
  5. Substances - Ubarasam
  6. Acids – Theeneer
  7. Fasting – Upavasam
  8. Body components – Udar – Porul
  9. Mercury pills – Rasa kulikai
  10. Yoga – physical postures of relaxation, meditation and mantras

This topic will be updated later.
MUPPU
The preparation of a Philosopher Stone - a super salt - known as ‘MUPPU’ which is unknown to other medical systems of other countries except in Indian Siddha System of Medicine. Muppu - it was found useful in the preparation of medicines for curing all sorts of sufferings, spiritual as well as physical. The processes like Calcinations and Red-oxide could not be possible without MUPPU.