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 Introduction to

It was my intention to write an introduction only on the completion of the entire work; but it occurred to me that, in a peculiarly technical and unique work like this, all the characteristic features shown and the methods pursued in giving the meanings, furnishing explanatory notes here and there in the derivative origins and. the like have all necessarily to be elucidated even at the outset without waiting for the whole work to be completed, so as to save all the possible difficulties of the users of this work; and it is this uncommon aspect of this work that has impelled me to offer this introduction even along with this first volume.

The original home allotted to mankind by the Creator was in the temperate and fertile region of the East and pointedly in India. It is from here that the human race began its culture and career of its advance from the potent nucleus of science and art with which India was animated. India may therefore safely state as the first country from which human culture and civilization originated and spread far and wide.

As every tyro in Indian History knows that, prior to the Aryan migration, the Dravidians we're the first inhabitants of India of whom the Tamilians are the most prominent. The early history of Tamil country and the earliest traditions of the Tamilians are still shrouded in obscurity. As a rule, whoever attempts to trace all the doings or actions of man in remote times and to mark the various steps of their progress in any activity gets mortified to find that the sources of their authentic history happen to be extremely limited.

Even if we had to push our investigation in the period preceding the historic era, we have been led to enter the region of conjecture and surmise. Into such hazardous task it is not my scope to venture or Endeavour to conduct my readers. My investigations and researches will therefore be confined only to what is intimately connected with the scope of this work.
The Tamilians
Many facts have been transmitted to us, which, when they are examined with proper care, clearly demonstrate that the Tamilians were not only the earliest civilized but also those made more Considerable progress in civilization than any other early people. I shall Endeavour to mention these placing them in such a point of view that will both serve to throw light upon their arts, institutions, manners and customs and to satisfactorily account for the eagerness of the Aryans and other nations to assimilate the product of all their ingenious and remarkable activities. From the most ancient available accounts of the Dravidians in India we learn that the distinction of social ranks according to profession not to speak of castes and creeds, was thoroughly in vogue during those times. This is one if the undoubted proofs of a well-ordered society considerably advanced in its progress. Prior to the records of authentic history and even perhaps prior to it in most remote eras to which their tradition aimed to reach, this separation of professions had not only existed amongst the primitive Dravidians of India, but its perpetuity was even secured by the Institution of headman of the professions known as (Nattanmaikkaarar) which must be considered as the fundamental article in the system of their polity.

It is only after the Aryan immigration that the divided themselves into four castes. This method of separation is only an established scheme, but to say that it had proceeded from Divinity and as such to confound it would be deemed an act of daring impiety, is glaringly false, as it does not appeal to one's faculty of reasoning.

The customs and conditions that exist amongst their descendants at the present day closely resemble in every way those that characterized them even from the earliest period when they were known as having flourished. The school of Siddhar’s and their works in various branches of knowledge are dear proof of their own high perfection in science.

The Dravidian family of languages

As classified by Mr. Max Muller, the largest number of languages--not to speak of the ancient Chinese which belongs to a Radical stage--belong perhaps to the Termination or Agglutinative stage and among them are included the Dravidian languages of India and the other languages such as Australian, Japanese, Turkish, Magyar, and Finnish as well. The Semitic and the Aryan Languages best represent the infectional or Amalgamating stage.

The languages of India are divided into two great classes - the Northern with Sanskrit as the prepondering element and the Southern with the Dravidian languages as independent bases. The five popular dialects of Southern India are as every one knows-the Dravida or the Tamil proper, the Teling, the Karnataka, the Mahratta and the Gurjara. The last two are included in this enumeration, as they possess certain features of resemblance to the languages of the South, which were probably derived from the same or similar source or sources.

The Dravidian language.

The term Dravidian is to signify the language of Southern India and they are-Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kanarese, Tulu, Gond and the Kru (Khond). Strictly speaking, the term 'Dravida' denotes the Tamil country alone (including Malayalam).

Tamil language-its origin

Agastya is an eminent personage who is venerated deeply in the South as the first preceptor of Tamil Science and1iterature of the primitive Dravidians. It is believed that he had himself received his knowledge and inspiration from God Subrahmanya, the fountain-head of all knowledge in Tamil. It is also said that, at the command of God Siva, Agastya proceeded to the South as far as Cape Comorin and took up his abode at the Podigai hills. Although he became the author of the Tamil language and compiled the first Tamil grammar  (Agattiyam). We are not to suppose that he was the author of the Tamil alphabet.

Just as Vyasa has been regarded in North India as a great authority in Sanskrit, Agastya has an equally distinguished place in the South. He is in fact called the" Tamil Muni or the Tamilians Sage." He wielded very high influence  which he acquired at the court of Kula sekhara (according to the tradition of the first Pandian King); and numerous is the elementary treatise which he composed for the enlightenment of his royal disciple: and the one with the grammatical principles of the language systematically arranged has naturally acquired high renown. He is myth logically represented in India as the Campus, the brightest star in the southern sky and is worshipped near Cape Comorin as Agattisvara. By the majority of the orthodox Hindus, he is even now believed to be still though invisible to ordinary eyes, somewhere on the fine conical commonly called the "Agastya's hills" from which the sacred river, Tamraparni takes its rise.

The territorial limits

The great plain of the Karnatic is at present the seat of the Tamil race. In some of the Tamil works it is said that the Tamil country south of Cape Comorin was originally a Continent, which is believed to have been submerged in the Indian Ocean. Even the seats of the first two great Tamil academics (Tamil Sangam) that existed at different periods; prior to the formation at the Madura Sangam, are believed alike to have been submerged in the sea; and thus the most precious gems of Tamil Literature have been irrecoverably lost.

Tamil Literature - its history

The easiest literature so far as it is known, is traced Dr. Caldwell to the 8th century A.D. The Madura Sangam then known as the last academy (Kadai Sangam), and founded mostly for the cultivation of the Tamil language exercised as great an authority over the Tamil literature as the Academy of Paris had done in its pal my days for France; but it came to a sudden end and several are the stories told and different are the explanations offered for the same and they are all far from being satisfactory. Whatever it is, the fact remains that it had to encounter severe opposition from the races that came after, especially from the Mohammedans who were responsible for the loss of the valuable gems of the Tamil literature. Tamil had in fact suffered several changes due to the influence of the Aryans, the Jains, and the Buddhists with the result that the Tamil section subsequently directed its attention more to Sanskrit and came at all events, to neglect the cultivation of their own literature.

Thus the old system was subverted; but a new impulse was given to the study of Tamil by the literary activities of the Jaina sect through which Tamil became substantially enriched. It borrowed from Sanskrit a few letters more for convenience rather than out of necessity. Though it is not within the scope of this work or its purpose to enter into the details of comparative philology, it is considered essential to deal with certain aspects that have contributed in a way towards the compilation of this work. Almost all the languages of India have been considerably enriched by Sanskrit; and Sanskrit has like-wise borrowed several words from Tamil especially from works on Medicine; Philosophy, Alchemy, which were composed mainly inverses, as for instance (Idakalai, Pinkalai, Suzhimunai) dealt with in this work are purely Tamil words but borrowed and assimilated in Sanskrit as 'Ida', 'Pin gala' and 'Subhuman'; as also the word (Aaratharam) (Shadadharam in Sanskrit) and (Suzhuthi) 'Sushupti'. Dr. Caldwell in his Dravidian Comparative Grammar, instances 31 words taken into Sanskrit from the Dravidian tongues. He is also of opinion that Sanskrit derived its cerebral consonants frame the Dravida. It is evident that the early writings on Tamil Medicine are quite independent of Sanskrit even as its language and literature are.

Kural and Tolkappiyam are the oldest productions of the existing Tamil literature; and along with this may be reckoned the 18 works (Pathinenkeezh Kanakku) written by the Jainas as also the several compositions (brief epigrammatic moral verses) of Awaiyar or the Matron.

Various are the views held by different scholars who closely studied the Tamil language without any bias;

1. Prof. Max Miller: 'Tamil' is the most highly cultivated language and possesses the richest stores of indigenous literature.

2. Rev. Percival: No language combines greater force with equal brevity than Tamil and it may be asserted that no human speech is more close and philosophic in its expression as an exponent of the mind than the same.

3. Dr. Caldwell: The Tamil literature is the only vernacular literature in India which has not been content with imitating Sanskrit, but has honorably attempted to emulate and outshine it. In one of the departments at least that of ethical epigrams-Sanskrit has been outdone by Tamil.

Now, coming to Medicine, it is my intention to say a few words about it in general and also in regard to the several indigenous systems now in Vogue in our country before I enter into the details of the Tamil Siddha Medicine which is the purpose of the present compilation and the main subject for discussion.

Siddha Medicine

Medicine, as every one knows is not merely a science but an art a well. It consists not merely of compounding mixtures, preparing decoction pills, plasters and’ drugs of all kinds; but it also deals with the different processes of life. The practice of medicine spoken of here deals not merely with the external body of man but also with the inner man or the soul. The art of Medicine is based on Truth and as such, it is a divine art not to be prostituted for base purposes for money. The employment of strong will' benevolence, charity, patience etc., is the principle corner stone in the practice of medicine. It is therefore a holy science and the practice, medicine and the curing of diseases are a sacred mission and as such cannot be understood by those who are undeveloped in their minds or who have mode no study of the deeper causes and the aims of life. There or countless remedies in nature, which are Magnolia die i.e., the mysteries of curing and healing hidden from eyes, but open to the spiritual perception of the Wise. A medicine that will do good at one time will be useless t another according to the prevailing influence of planets and their fore; and therefore a system of medicine without the true knowledge on understanding of natural lows, is likely to do more harm than good. Medical science maybe mastered by learning, but medical wisdom n is gained only by knowledge of Nature or of the Soul.

Medical science in India as practiced by our ancients, has been purely associated with Religion and Philosophy; and as such is evidently based on truth. Modern science knows next to nothing about the cause of medicines in the system; and so the drugs administered by modern practitioners cannot effect any radical cure of diseases; but will serve only to drive away the effects of diseases temporarily. The refined natural remedies have almost entirely disappeared from the Pharmacopoeia. Many learned doctors of to-day are not aware of the simple fact that organs such as, the heart, lungs, brain, liver and stomach are only the material and the bodily representatives of invisible energies or activities that pervade and circulate the whole cosmic system, just in the same way as the Sun, Moon, Venus, Mars, etc., are the visible representatives of the Cosmos.

A system of medicine without understanding and without a true knowledge of natural laws, will therefore remain for ever a system of mere opinions, superstitions and of passive observation and in archivolt, is the fake of the indigenous systems of Medicine in India at the. Present Some may perhaps criticize this on the ground that these views are similar to those held by the Medical school of Dogma tics In the Hippocrates that such knowledge is quite unnecessary abuse. It is unattainable' and impracticable and that the simple human experience should be the only guide 'to practice. But the fact remains that, unless these. Systems are thoroughly over-haled. Through research, our physicians Will seldom cure a serious or chronic ailment.

The three systems that are adopted in practice in India are at present Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha, all of which are based on humoural pathology, or in other words, on the same physiological doctrine, that air, bile and phlegm (Vaatha Piththa Silettumam) are the three supports of the body. They all advocate that, without these three humours, the individual could not exist and that if they get deranged, diseases or death will be the result.


Tamil siddha medicine Ayul vetha later Aryan change the name as Ayur veda
Ayurveda is reckoned as a portion of the fourth Veda or the Adharvana and has been considered the oldest work on Hindu medicine. Although this is claimed by the Aryans as theirs, neither its author nor the age in which it was written is known; and only fragments of  it have come down to us embodied in certain commentaries of subsequent writers. The modern Hindus ascribe its authorship to their gods, some to Brahma on others to Siva; but in their philosophical writings they are all to Siva who in this aspect is known at Vaidisvara (God of Medicine).

It is not clear how the human race got accesses to it as many and various are the legends current about it. It is said that, in Kaliyuga, the war world become reprobate and the corruption of the human race was such as to necessitate a great curtailment of life and to leave the numerous ailments. This legend is supposed to indicate the epoch of Ayurveda as intermediate between the Vedic and the Brahminal times- which is about the 9th or the 10th century B.C.

European nations are much indebted to the Arabs for the presentation and transmission of the works of the ancient Greek which had fallen into their hands during the destruction of the famous library at Alexandria and for having provided a connecting link with classical antiquity during an age when science, art and literature in Europe lay buried under the colossal ignorance of barbarism.

Tamil Siddha System of Medicine

The Word 'Siddha' comes from the word 'Siddha' which means 'an object to be attained' or 'perfection' or 'heavenly bliss'. Siddha generally refers to Ashtma Siddha the eight great supernatural powers, which are enumerated as Anima. Those who attained or achieved the above said powers are known as Siddhar’s.

Siddha are also construed as powers which are attained by birth, (according to previous Karma), by chemical means or power of words or by mortification or through concentration. As for instance-Kapila, the father of the great Sankhya philosophy is a born Siddha. Concentration on the elements beginning with the Gross and ending with the Superfine enables one to get mastery over the elements; and this was practiced by a sect of Buddhists who concentrated on a lump of clay with a view to see' its fine ethereal particles.

A brief account of the Sridhar’s is given on page 10 of this volume under the foot-note (Agappei Siddhar). In Dawson's classical dictionary of Hindu Mythology, they are described as belonging to a class of semi divine beings of great purity and holiness, dwelling in the regions of the sky or between the earth and the sky, but they are generally mistaken for Ghosts. In Ayurveda, such classes of persons were called Ramayana’s n account of their proficiency in the knowledge of Alchemy and Rejuvenation .

As Nandi is apparently the head of the members in the above list, the school should only be Nandivargam and cannot be *Moolavargam.

(* Some authors hold that these are only the followers of this school and not its members.
It appears that another school of Sridhar’s was in existence prior to the above school. It is said to have been, founded by God Siva and it consisted only of nine members known as 'Navanatha Siddha’, which see.)

The Siddhar’s were a class of popular writers in Tamil in all its branches of knowledge; and many of their works were written in what is called high Tamil. The Kavi or poetry in which the medical and other scientific tracts have been composed is much admired by those who have made it their special study. The Siddhars were further the greatest scientists in ancient times. They were men of highly cultured intellectual and punctual faculties combined with supernatural powers. Their works in Tamil are supposed to be more valuable than many that have been written in Sanskrit. They are said to be works less shackled by the mythological doctrines of the original Ayurveda. They contain a large number of valuable and exhibit further minute enumerations of morbid symptoms. They evince a moral conviction of the intervention of the evil spirits and offer many curious rules for averting their evil influences and effects.

 These Siddhars are universally supposed to have lived at a very early period; and we cannot ascertain their exact period of existence as. Their school also ceased to function very long ago. Agastya Siddha who is the chief of the Siddhars' school is said to have been a celebrated philosopher and physician who labored amongst the Tamils in Southern India. Some of his works are still standard books of Medicine and Surgery in daily use among the Tamil medical practitioners. It is very doubtful whether this Agastya is identical with the great Rushing Northern India. He is said to have written numerous treatise on Medicine, Alchemy, Magic etc., but they are all considered to be literary forgeries written by his followers and fathered on him. It is quite unnecessary for our purpose here to append a list of books of the Tamil Siddha system, as has been done in the cases of the other two systems, for the simple reason that they are so numerous as likely to extend to several pages. The readers may refer to the bibliographical list, which will be furnished at the end of this work, which would be fairly exhaustive.

Leaving the early pre-Aryan ages and coming to the Dravidian times, we find many others, probably the followers of the said Siddha school; and they are also credited with a knowledge of Medicine, Alchemy etc. and with having beneficially employed themselves in importing through tear works, knowledge of the healing art in curing all the diseases of man. Their works bear a close resemblances to the Siddha system of medicine and as such command a large circulation and wide spread study amongst the Tamilians. They are all apparently the supposed compositions of the Siddha School; but are thoroughly modern and colloquial with grammatical forms and structure not at all familiar to the ancients. Still, they have spread all over Southern India so widely that there is not a village or a household, which is not aware of this system of Medicine? Every woman knew best how to treat herself and her children; and was fully aware of or otherwise acquainted with the uses. Of 'Domestic Medicines' suited to indigenous taste and knowledge; and this acquaintance with domestic treatment has been purely hereditary.

Even physician in those days were doctors of long descent; and from their early youth they had been intended for the profession and were taught everything that was considered necessary for and preparatory to it. This science had later become so much degraded that most of them turned mere empirics; and there was not one physician amongst them more learned than the other. This is in short the history of the three systems of Medicine, indigenous to our country.

Macrocosm vs. Microcosm

Man is said to be the Microcosm and the world the Macrocosm; because what exists in the world exists in Man; or in other words there is nothing in the Macrocosm of Nature that is not contained in Man. So man must be looked upon as an integral part of universal Nature and not as anything separate or different farm the latter. Further, the forces in the Microcosm or man are identical with the forces of the Macrocosm or the world; or to put it more plainly-the natural forces acting in and through the various organs of the human body are intimately related to the similar or corresponding forces acting in and through the organisms of the world. This closely follows the Siddhars' doctrine--

Andatthil Ullathey Pindam                                             Andamum Pindamum Ondrey
Pindatthil Ullathey Andam                                             Arinthu Thaan Paarkkumpothu
                                                                                                            (Sattamuni Nianam)

 In the organisms of man, these force my act in an abnormal manner and cause diseases thereby. Similarly, in the great organisms of the Cosmos, they may act abnormally likewise and bring about diseases on earth and its atmospheric conditions such as earthquake, storms, lightning’s, rain-falls resulting in floods or inundations and so on. Again, the quality of life found in the elements constituting the blood of a man corresponds to the quality of the invisible influences radiating from Mars. If the scull-essentials that characterize the influences of Venus do not exist, the natural instincts that cause men and animals to propagate their species would to operate; because all beings in the Universe are sympathetically connected with the only one universal principle of life from Venus resulting in love between, two persons of the opposite sex.

The following are the instance in which every sign of the Zodiac has an aspect towards some particular part of the human body: -

1. Aries            relates to neck                               Libra              relates to the kidneys

2. Taurus          the neck and shoulders                  Scorpio          genitals

3. Gemini          arms and hands                             Sagittarius       lips

4. Cancer         chest and adjacent pairs                Capricorn’s     knees

5. Leo              the heal and stomach                     Aquarius         legs

6. Virgo            the intestine, the base                    Pisces             feet
                       of the stomach and umbilicus.

Like the signs of the Zodiac each of the planets has Jurisdiction over some parts of the body. A few instances shown below will be enough to exemplify the manner and the way in which the Seven Planets exercise special power over some part of the body to cause. Disease or diseases according to their influences on the three humors in the system: -

1. Saturn: presides over bones, teeth, cartilages, ear, spleens, bladder and brain and gives rise to Quarter fever, leprosy, toes, dropsy, cancer, cough, asthma, phthisis, deafness of the night ear, hernia, etc.

2.  Jupiter: Has jurisdiction over blood, liver, pulmonary veins, diaphragm, muscles of the trunk and sense of touch and smell.

3. Mars: has power over bile, gall bladder, left dear, pudenda. And the kidneys; and brings about fever, Jaclyn ice, convulsions, hemorrhage, carbuncle, erysipelas, ulcers etc.

4. Venus: presides over the petitions blood a lid sedme1n, throba1t, breasts, abdomen, uterus genital, taste, same, and pleasure e sensations; and causes gonorrhea, barrenness abscesses or even death from sexual or poison.

5. Mercury: has jurisdiction over the animal, spirit, over legs, feet, hands, fingers, tongue, nerves and ligaments and produces relapsing fevers mania, phlebitis, epilepsy, convulsion, profuse expectoration etc, or even death by poison, witchcraft and so on. 




Eastern Physiology

Nature is the material cause not early of the outer Universe but also of our body with all its grosser and subtler divisions and components, its instruments of knowledge and action and the proclivities and tendencies, in which the soul dwells even, as in a cottage.

The question that naturally arises is what constitutes the human body according to the theory of Siddhantists and the following is the answer to it:

We present our readers a table of 96 Tatwas (Philosophy) postulated by the Siddhantists' school; and a simpler form of the table is herein given; and this requires to be carefully studied. A careful and precise definition of these Tawas has to follow; but this we do not attempt here for want of space. The human body is composed ninety-six Tawas or constituent principles in Nature including elements, bodily and mental organs, faculties, matter etc; and they are as shown below:

1. The five elements                                          - Im Pootham

2. The five object of senses                               - Im Pulan       

3. The five organs of action                               - Karumenthiriyam

4. The five organs of perception                        - Nianenthiriyam          

5. The four intellectual faculties                          - Anthak Karanam

6. The ten nerves                                              - Thasanaadi

7. The five states of the soul                              - Panjaavashthai

8. The three principles of moral evil                   - Mum Malam 

9. The three cosmic qualities                             - Mukkunam

10. The three humors (wind, bile, phlegm)         - Muppini

11. The three regions (sun, moon, and fire)        - Moondru Mandalam

12. The eight predominant passions                   - Yen Vihaaram

13. The six stations of the soul                           - Aaratharam

14. The seven constituent elements of body       - Ezhu Vagai Thaathu

15. The ten vital airs                                          - Thasa Vaayu

16. The five cases of sheaths of the soul            - Panja Kosam

17. The nine doors or vents of the body            - Onbathu Vaasal        

In Tamil, small tracts called Kattalai exist; and they define and describe these Tatwas, which are variously enumerated as 19 or 25 or 36 or 96. Rev. Hoisington has translated one of these tracts, as also Rev. Foulkes of Salem, but both these books are unfortunately out of print. Both Siddhantins and Vedantins (Idealists) accept the number 36 or 96; but they differ in several particulars. Thirty-six when still more analyzed give rise to Ninety-six. The enumeration of these Tatwas begins from the lowest and the grossest, which is the earth.

Note:    Nos. 1 to 5 making up a total of twenty-four are called the powers of the soul (Atthuma Thatwam); whereas Nos. 6 to 17 making up a total of 72 which together with the above said 24 (in 1 to 5) constitutes 96 Tatwas.

The Siddhars' school fully recognizes these ninety-six Tatwas and further add that the human body is composed of 72,000 blood-vessels, 13,000 nerves, 10 main arteries, 10 vital airs (prana), all together in the form of a net-work; and it is, owing to the derangement of the three humors becomes liable to 4448 diseases. This is well explained in the following verses from Iswara’s Meignana Nadi: -

            “ Moola mezhu pattheeraa yiramaamnaadi
                        Munaithezhunthu valaipola mudinthathode
               Kolamaaip pathinmuvaa yiramnarambu
                        Korvaiyaai soozhnthirukkum koottirkulle
               Kalamaam naadipatthu vaayu patthu
                        Kathitthathella mukkorvaip pagaiyinaale
               Naalanaa laayiratthu naanootrodu
                        Navil naarpath thennoyaai naattalaame”

Of these ten vital airs, five play an important role in the physiological unction’s necessary for the preservation of the physical body and they are:

1. Chief Prana - Regulates the respiratory system.
2. Apana - helps excretions from the lower organs, evacuation & generation.
3. Vyana - principle of circulation of energy throughout the entire nervous system.
4. Udana - regulates the function of higher organs of the brain.
5. Samana - the principle of digestion assimilation.
Tatwa is the primordial and eternally existing basic essence.

The Knowledge of Siddhars in this respect cannot be taken as abstruse speculations; and in their arguments, we can see evinced such depths of thought, acumen and discernment as would lead one at think that their systems of logic or reasoning regarding the physiological principles are remarkably striking and interesting.

Now coming to the psychological aspect of the human body, we find that the five great elements of modern thinkers play a great part in the composition of the human body. According to Hindu conception, tamaris elements viz., Mind and Buddhi should also be taken into consideration. Each element playing its own part goes to bring about the harmonious working of the human and other animal bodies. There are, nine gates (ten in women) described for the play of forces of the five senses in the human body in which lives the soul commonly known as Jivatma a miniature representation of Paramatma, the universal soul in contra-distinction to the former. The human body is therefore considered to be a temple of God.

There are in our body several supports to the soul for the existence and continuation of life; and these supports are closely connected by Prana. Siddhars attach much more importance to this Prana, which is the Life Principle of the Universe absorbed and specialized by every human being. This Prana stimulates the two very active centers viz. the brain and the heart. The positive matter flows along the vertebral column and is gathered up in the Medulla oblongata and this flow we call Sushumna, and it, stimulates the spinal column with all its ramifications; Pingala is the channel for the current which work in the right half of the body through the right sympathic system and Idakala is the channel for the currents working in the left half of the body or the left sympathetic. These channels of life forces are called in Tamil Nadies. The forces of Prana, which diverge from either way from these Nadis, are only the ramifications and the nervous system is but the plexuses or webs (physical) for the play of the force of Prana through the physical body. As the Prana courses itself through, the lungs inspire, and as it recedes the process of exhalation sets in.

The three Nadies Ida, Pingala, and Sushumna meet in six different places known as Shadadharam (Aaratharam) the six nerve plexuses. Each of these plexuses is round like a wheel and hence they are called Chakras or Padmams. Every plexus pulsates’ with 'full vibrations of the great stream current of Prana which Sushumna (Suzhimunai) absorbs tram the Great Life Principle. These major Chakras in their turn cause the smaller ones or the minor nerve centers to function. The main seat of the pranic force is the heart; and this is made to function by the force of the Great Energy. The Great Energy playing on the (Suzhimunai) (sushumuna) gives the motive power which enables the respective parts of the human organism to function.

Sushumna (Suzhimunai) is one of the passages of the nerve-centre at the top of the vertebral column running down through the spinal cord. Within this sushumna (Suzhimunai) is a hollow called Chitra and in this hollow the Divine spirit dwells. This spirit is in all probability the seat of vitality and of life. The other two Nadies are called Idakala and Pinkala of which Idakala coiling round Sushumna enters the right nostril and the other Pingala in like manner enter the left nostril.

There are the channels of communication for interchanges of forces and influences between these centers and the Zodiac and the Planets. 1. The Pingala has for its principle and influence heat; and its governing planets are the Sun, Mars and Saturn. It presides over Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn. 2. The Idakala is cold and its planets are Moon, Mercury and Jupiter; and it presides over the signs Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius, Gemini and Virgo. 3. The sushumna (Suzhimunai) governs Sagittarius and Pisces. It has already been stated that Pingala rules the right nostril, Idakala the left and Sushumna the space between the eyebrows. The movement of this Prana is changing periodically so that the breath is made to pass in and out of the right nostril at one time and through the left nostril at another time. Prana works in Sushumna when the breath passes in and out of both the nostrils. The changes occur in regular order when a man is in perfect health. It is upon these facts in nature that (Saranool), a branch of the Science of Breath is based.

Siddhars and mahirishi who had spent all their lives in meditation in secluded forests should be credited with a complete knowledge of the human body far better than anybody else. They have presented to the world a most wonderful record of their work and observation that are the objects of study even to-day by some of the greatest men of the West who have been gathering points for their own use at any rate to a certain extent.

The five elements

According to Hindu science, there are five elements in Nature. They are the original bases of all the corporeal things which when die out or destroyed resolve themselves again into elements. This is in fact just what takes place in the case of dead bodies of animals and things. All earthly beings live, move, grow and die to be resolved into the five elements again after death. It has already been pointed out that there is a very close and intimate connection between the external world and the internal man. The human body is composed of five elements viz., earth, water, heat, air and ether and is a small world in itself; and so the five elements lie at the root of the external world and the internal man. They are also found in all bodies by the processes of transmutation and union and the followings are instances of such transformed conditions:

1. Earth            - Into bone, flesh, nerves, skin and hair.

2. Water           - Bile, blood, semen, secretion and sweat.

3. Fire              - Hunger, thirst, sleep; beauty and indolence.

4. Vayu            - Contraction, expansion and motion.

5. Akasa          - Interspaces of the stomach, heart, neck and the head.

In their natural existence, they are crude more or less mixed up and apt to be changed the one into the other. They are the fundamental principles of creation, preservation and destruction in the Universe. They are so very closely connected with one another that they borrow their qualities one from the other and thus each of them has two specific properties of which one is retained as original belonging to itself and the other is that which comes to it from the others. Therefore, as fire is to air, so is air to water and water to earth; and again, as the earth is to the water, so is water to air, and air is to fire; and this is the root and foundation of all bodies arid their wonderful functioning.

Every element will be found mixed up thus with the other five elements. One element cannot be viewed dissociated from the other elements. Where there is one element there are other elements also present. This is briefly explained as follows; - Elements are in themselves divided into two halves or parts viz., Physical and Subtle and this subtle is again divided into two equal parts of which one is retained as such and the other part is sub-divided into four equal parts. The process of combination of each of these parts with the retained half in the others is known as (Panchiekaranam) (five-fold combination) as for instance: -

1/2 of Akaka is integrated with the other sub-division of the four elements viz., air, fire, water and earth i.e., 1/2 of Akasa + 1/8 of the other elements constitute--physical ether (Sthoola Aakasam) likewise 1/2 of air - 1/8 to the other four elements constitute physical fire (Sthoola theyu) and so on. In this way we get the five elements in mutual combination but with the designation of that which is predominant in each.

This is what is called the theory of Panchikaranam. In fact Panchiekaranam is the operation of the five elements in the human body by the varied union of which, according to Tatwas system, different operations or acts, of mental faculties or corporeal powers, are considered to be effected. He who knows the principle underlying Panchikaranam will thoroughly understand the qualities of the elements separately and in combination and thus bring to pass wonderful and astonishing results or miracles in the world even as Siddhars do. A Sadhu before us suddenly disappears; and the disappearance is nothing but ether serving as a barrier between the Sadhu and ourselves brought about by utilising powers in nature and manipulating them to bring about materialisation of things, and redirection of rays of vibration from objects. Herein lies also the secret of tile foretelling of things to come, the expelling of evil and the gaining of desired ends; and the knowledge of this secret power is what is called in psychic parlance (Panchiekarana Sakthi) which in the West is termed 'the Perfection of the Cabala'. It is the root cause and foundation for the cosmos-genesis. In Cosmogony, it is the reduction into union and order of chaos or discordant principles of matter, brought about by harmoniously blending together of the five elementary substances. He who knows how to reduce the elements of one order into another, impure into pure, compound into single and vice versa will verily understand the nature, virtue and power of all and every one of the elements.

Siddhars hold also that if one is aware of the secret doctrine of the five elements, one metal may be changed into another on the ground that all substances spring or emanate from some Primordial matter; and so there can be no classification as elements and compounds. More of this will be found fully dealt with under Alchemy infra.

The elements above referred to are the subtle elements (Sootchamam) and not the gross ones. The doctrine of the elements as described by Siddhars first originated in India; and the Greek philosophers got their ideas about the elements from only the Orients. It is clearly laid down in ancient treatises that the earth is derived from water; water from fire, fire from air, and air from ether (sky) – vide Upanished; and so these elements supposed to be originals are no in themselves really elements; but they are twice compounded and each changeable into others. So the Siddhars assert that none of the so called elements which enter into the composition of all living bodies is by itself pure; and that the only purest and original one in this world is the Soul and the rest are all only compounds.

The only conclusion therefore is that one of these five elements is the primordial ether out of which the other elements have their origin. The ancients of Europe had also similar belief as evinced from the saying, that “Chaos of auntients” was a confused mixture of elements from which the Creator produced the Univers and that the Cosmos arose from chaos and gave birth to different natural bodies. Van Halmont likewise believed that the vapour of water was a confused mass of elements from which all material substances could be procured.

The three physical elements of the external world, viz., air (wind), heat (fire) and water are selected in Medical Science as they form the three fundamental principles on which the constitution of human beings has been based. A detailed account of these three elements known as humours as they enter into the body is given separately under ‘Humoural Pathology’.

Humoural Pathology

Humoural Pathology explains that all diseases are caused by the mixture of the three cardinal humours are responsible for a person’s physical and mental qualities and dispositions. The three humours under references are called in Tamil ‘Muppini’ and in Ayurveda ‘ Tridosha’. They are the three fundamental principles and essential factors in the composition and constitution of the human body. These three humours viz., Wind, Bile and Phlegm represent respectively the air, the fire and the water of the five elements which form the connecting link between Microcosm and man and Macrocosm or world.

The external air corresponds to the internal Vayu; the external Heat corresponds to the internal Pita; and the external water corresponds to the internal Phlegm (Kapha). Man is thus linked with the external world; and any change in the elementary condition of the external world has its corresponding change in the human organism; and it is upon this interchange of influences that the Tridosha theory and the doctrine of Humoural Pathology are based.

According to the Siddhars' Science, the three humors in their normal order occupy respectively the lower, middle and upper parts of the body and maintain their integrity-the Vayu in the regions of the pelvis and the rectum; the Pittman in the region of the stomach and the internal viscera and the Phlegm in the region of the breath, throat and head. It is also said that the characteristics of the three humors in the constitution of man is either hereditary or ataxic. In scientific parlance, Vayu comprehends all the phenomena which come under the functions of the central and the sympathetic nervous system; Pita, the functions of thermo genesis or heat production, metabolism within its limits, the process of digestion, coloration of blood, excretion and secretion etc., and Kappa, the regulation of the heat and the formation of the various preservative glands. Thus we see that the Indian medical science is based on morbific diathesis; and that human dispositions are inseparable from the three humours. In fact, there is no substance in the universe, which does not own its formation to humours in large or small degree.

The Siddhars' Materia Medica also is based on Humoural Pathology. It asserts that all substances of the animal, the vegetable and the mineral kingdoms contain one or more of these three humours in their composition; and that therefore diet should play an important role in the maintenance of these humours in men and women in preventing diseases or ailments; and that the patient should seek the advice of a physician in the matter of diet in the course of treatment.

The three humours maintain the upkeep of the human body through their combined functioning. When deranged, they bring about diseases peculiar to their influence; when in equilibrium (Samanilai) freedom from disease; and when one or the other of the humors combine in such a way as to get deranged by aggravation' diminution etc., disease or death may be the result. The humours by themselves are not the producers of diseases in they’re normal functioning; but they give rise to diseases if they are vitiated by other factors; and hence we see that humours and diseases are altogether different and have no connection in their normal condition. Humours may be said to be the component parts of the human organism, and diseases the outcome of external factors that put those organisms out of order.

According to the fundamental principles of Humeral Pathology, no disease’s can be local and absolutely unconnected with the other parts of the organism. If the physician tries to cure a disease, he should necessarily concentrate his attention upon the why and wherefore of the vitiated humors resulting in that disease. The principal rules to be followed in cases of irregularity of the three humours are either to anger the loss or deficiency, to pacify the aggravation or to reduce the increment of Doshas and maintain them in a state or healthy equilibrium. The normal order of Vata, Pitta and kapha are in the proportions of1: 1/2: 1/4: 4: 2: 1. respectively. The normal degree or force of pulse also is to be in the same order. Any change in these proportions is sure to bring about disease or death; but the maintenance of their normal proportion gives vitality to the organisms and assures the preservation of health and longevity of life.

It has already been stated that these three humors form these three fundamental principles in the composition and constitution of Man; and so the physiological doctrine on which they are based is also exactly the same as that of Pathology.

Let us now examine the part placed by each of these humors in the system: -

Vayu (wind) forms the vital force of the human body and is present everywhere in the system. It is believed to be self-begotten in its origin and identical with the Divine Energy i.e., God. It is unconditioned, absolute and all pervading in its nature; and forms the Life force of all animated beings and are the cause of the origin, growth and destruction of all beings. Although it is invisible, its presence is manifest everywhere. It always takes a transverse course and is known by its two attributes namely, sound and touch. It is the root cause of all disease and the king of all sorts of ailments. It is very prompt in its action and it passes through the whole system in a rapid current.

Pitta (Heat) in the human organism is nothing but heat as it possesses all the characteristics of the external fire, such as burning, boiling, heating etc. It produces the internal heat necessary to maintain the integrity of the human body; and any increase or decrease in this, produces a simultaneous action in the organism. The chief function of bile lies in metamorphosing the chyle to a proto-plasmas substance like the sperm in men and the ovum in women. It corresponds to metabolism' or cell sub-division. Heat may be said to include both bile and metabolism of tissues as well as the bodily heat, which is the product of the latter. It is also viewed by some that Pitta is the name for the heat incarcerated in the liquid bile - the principal agent in digestion and in the purging out of the waste matter in the form of urine and feces. The origin of bile is in the liver. In the heart, bile brings about the realization of one's desire; in the eyes the catching of the images of external objects; and in the skin, the absorption of the lubricating substances that are applied to the skin. It is blue in its normal color and yellowish in its deranged condition; and it turns into an acid when deranged or vitiated. Pitta (heat) in its normal state remains in the lymph, chyle, blood and saliva but chiefly in the stomach. It gives sight to the eyes, beauty to the skin and cheerfulness to the mind. Its derangement causes sleeplessness, indigestion, red boils, jaundice, choroids, ulcers, catarrh, dropsy, hemorrhage, acidity, eructation, delirium, perspiration, thirst, bitter taste in the mouth, burning sensation in the body especially palms and soles, etc.

Kapha (phlegm) supplies the body with moisture even as Pitta furnishes it with heat and imparts stability and weight to the body. It adds to the strength of the body, increases the firmness of the limbs and keeps' them united, preventing their disunion. It helps digestion by moistening and disintegrating food with its humid essence. It imparts to the tongue the power of taste and helps the sense organs like the eyes, ears and the nose in the performance of their respective functions. Its derangement causes excess of thirst, dull appetite, throwing out of phlegm in cough, goiter, Urinary etc. Meals taken before digestion, day-sleep, taking sweats, molasses etc., generally aggravate Phlegm.

The existence of these three humours in the human system in due proportion is well indicated by pulse without which no correct diagnosis of disease is possible. To get oneself well acquainted with the inner working of a disease, inner vision, intuition and the spiritual sense are absolutely necessary, as it cannot otherwise be easily judged from a material point of view. It is only spiritual knowledge endowed with inner vision that will enable a physician to diagnose a disease at sight and suggest forthwith remedies therefore. A Physician who is incapable of entering into spirit of his patient by the light of knowledge; intellectual faculties and imaginative penetration would be of no use for the diagnosing or treating of human diseases.

Humeral Pathology was in vogue at one time over a great part of the Globe. Even in Europe, it was believed in by all sects and theorists evidently about 400 B.C. Hippocrates, the father of the Greek medicine was the first who had a leaning towards it; but it was Plato who developed it and Galen who defended it very zealously. It was only at the commencement of the 18th century that a change had come in the then prevailing doctrine explaining the essential humouredly nature of disease. Humeral Pathology, which ascribed all disease primarily to a morbid condition of the fluids, had prevailed in all schools of Medicine up to the time of Hoffmann who argued that solids were more often the primary seats of diseases than even of the fluids. He thus revived the doctrine of solidism, which gradually gained credit. The fall of the Galena School paved the way for the growth of the Western Medicine of the present day. Humouredly Pathology is still generally believed in and acted upon throughout Asia.

Some alchemical authors of the West held that the three invisible fluids which by their coagulation formed the physical body of man, were but symbolized sulphur, mercury, and salt - sulphur representing the aura and the ether; mercury, the fluids, and salt, the material and corporeal parts of 'the body. They believed that in each organ the three substances remained combined in certain proportions. They were also of opinion that the said substances which contained in all things, if held together in harmonious proportions constituted health; their disharmony, disease and disruption, death.

The Kabalistic School of the middle ages interpreted these three substances in a different way although they followed closely the above principle. The three substances were according to them the three forms in which the Universal Primordial Will was manifesting throughout Nature-sulphur representing the expansive power, the centrifugal force i.e., the soul or light in all things; 'mercury', the life or the principle which manifests itself as vitality; and 'salt' the principle of corporifieation or contractive and solidifying quality. The school also asserts that the physician should be thoroughly familiar with these substances by studying them in the light of nature and not through depending on his own imagination. It will be found that all the alchemical masters who have written on the magnum opus have so employed the said three symbolical expressions as to make them understood only by the adepts and not the profane.


Siddhars' Science also tells us that a man generally takes 15 breaths a minute; and this makes 21, 600 (15X60X24) breaths a day; and at this rate, he can live for a period of at least 120 years, taking into consideration the fundamental principle on which respiration is based viz., The force or energy lost in every exhalation operating to a length of space extending for *12 inches is regained or recouped by inhalation only to a partial extent; because the operation in this case extends only to 8 inches, thus losing every time the force or energy required for supplying the difference of 12-8 or 4 inches; and consequently as much force or energy that ought to enter the body i.e., lost in every recess of inhalation taking place. The following Tamil verse from Boyars Ghana Severe (100) - explains the truth of this fundamental principle in respiration and even points out clearly how death In Human beings is Brought About:-

                        Paarkkaiyile agatthiyamaa muniye kelu
                             Pannirandu angulanthaan paayum pothu
                        Yerkkaiyile chandirandhaan naalum pocchu
                             Enmagane thegamunthaan iranthapogum
                        Kaarkkayile naalayunthaan ettil cheru
     Kangulpaga londraaga kalanthu pogum
Maarkkamathai ariyaamal manithar thaamum
     Mandiranthu povatharku varunthu vaare.

In eating or vomiting, the breath forced out extends to 18 niches; in walking, to 24 inches; in running, 42 inches; cohabiting, 50 inches; in sleeping, 60 inches and so on. It is for the purposed of saving~ such loss or losses caused by indulging in the action mentioned, that Yogis take up a silent posture and suppress their breath in such a way and to such an extent that they are able to live for any number of years as desired by them without disease or death, devoting their life all the time for the good of mankind. Such a kind of spiritual breathing is sure to develop spiritual powers of consciousness much sooner than the ordinary process of evolution. It is a fact well-known to the Hindus that Siddhars and Yogis remained in a state or trance known as suspended animation and continued to be so far a longer period of time without breathing. At first sight this may appear a physical impossibility; but it is now generally accepted by the Western physiologists who explain it saying that the skin may to some extent perform the function of the lungs just in the same way as a frog breathes without lungs, while its respiration is carried on sufficiently through the skin. Though naturally the capacity to perform the above said function is very small, yet it is capable of considerable increase as in cases of diseases of the lungs such as Asthma, wherein the needs of the body excite them to perform these functions or by special training as Yoga by practice.

(Some authors hold exhalation to be 16 inches; inhalation 12 inches and the difference 16- 12 or 4 inches; any way the? difference sees. to be tale scar:’ 4 inches. Hence Tamil saying “Pathinaarum petru peruvazhvu vazhvai.”)


The esoteric breath is spoken of as Prana; because in ordinary breathing, we absorb a normal supply of Prana just enough to maintain our life keeping up the body in a healthy condition, and so it is found necessary for our readers to know something about this Prana. Prana is the Universal Principle of Energy, which is absorbed and stored or assimilated and specialized in one’s system in the ordinary course. It is the essence of all force of energy useful for the proper functioning of the human body. It is taken in by-the system along with the oxygen, which is found in its purest state in the atmospheric air. It is also in the water that we drink, in the food that we take and in the sunlight, we bathe in; and in fact it pervades all nature and as such is everywhere found in all things. It is in all forms of matter; it is in the air, but it is not the air. It is subtler than ether, and so can penetrate where the air cannot reach. It is of the nature of the dynamic force of electricity and all life depends on it for its sustenance. It is the vital magnetic force absorbed by every human being in various ways; but it can be made flow forcibly under proper and favorable physical conditions. Susceptible persons will feel it as an electric current; because it is the life-giving energy in all things.

Now, let us see what part is played by this Prana in respiration; it is but the esoteric breath. Human breath is nothing but a physical manifestation of Prana. As oxygen is taken up by the circulatory system, so is Prana taken up by the nervous system and is spent as nerve-force in the act of thinking, desiring etc. Regulation of breath enables one in fact to absorb a greater supply of Prana to be stored up in the brain and the nerve-centres to be used whenever necessary.

The extraordinary powers attributed to advanced Siddhars are due largely to the knowledge and intelligent use of this energy stored-up in Kindling (Serpent power). It should be borne in mind that every function of the bodily organs is dependent on nerve- force, which is supplied by Prana emanating from the Sun and circulating in space. Without this nerve-force, the heart cannot beat, the lungs cannot breathe the blood cannot circulate 'and the various organs cannot perform their respective normal functions. This Prana not only supplies electric force to the nerves, but it also magnetizes the iron in the system and produces the aura as a natural emanation. It is the first step in the development of Personal Magnetism, which is easily acquired by the practice of Panorama, which is fully explained under Yoga and its Philosophy. This Personal Magnetism, the subtle force by which people are influenced and nations are controlled is due to the strength of Prana. History abounds instances of the successes of remarkable personages naturally endowed with this power. Great men in all ages, orators, patriots, statesmen and dictators-admired and worshipped by millions were naturally endowed with this gift and they were but Natural Magnetists. Napoleon was the very, thunderbolt of Europe as also Abraham Lincoln of America, Marmite Steel and Mira Beau (the lion of the French Revolution) was a leader among men. Great men 0f our own day like Gandhi on moral sphere, Mussolini, Hitler, etc. on the material sphere; owe their influence to this magnetism. Those coming in contact with him feel a person, who has practiced absorbing and storing an increased supply of Prana in his system, often radiates vitality and strength which are felt by those coming in contact with him. This power though latent in every man, requires cultivation and development for practical purposes more than perhaps those physical and other ordinary functions.

The Science of Pulse

(19) The Science of pulse forms a very important branch of the Indian system of Medicine; and hence an elaborate description of it has been attempted here. The origin and development of this science is a subject of very remote antiquity. It is not Vedic in origin; and no trace of it could be found in any of the authentic works of Ayurveda such as Charaka or Susthruta. It is a science peculiar to the Siddhars' system, of Medicine; and as such it was translated" in the Tartaric literature in which alone a proper delineators of this subject is to be found. It is in the age of Tartaric literature i.e., the period during which the Aryans in Southern India introduced several innovations, that a large body of Ayurveda physicians came to know of it and its secret and used it to diagnose all kinds of diseases. Subsequently, it went over to Arabia, Persia, Greece and other places in Europe. Praxogoras of Leos was the first, who gained distinction in the West by adopting this method of diagnosis anew,] the last person was Galen.

This Subject is no doubt as interesting as it is intricate; and a careful study of Tamil Siddhars' science is bound to enlighten the minds of the people, as to the excellence, accuracy and profundity of this science of pulse. It was only in Siddhars' time that this science had reached perfection. There are innumerable works on this subject written by different authors in Tamil among whom the following may be mentioned viz., Agastiya, Tirumular, Siva Vakkiyar, Yugimuni, Terayar, Punnakisar, Sudamuni, Machamuni, Pulippani, Sattaimuni, Bogar, Vara Rishi, Ramadevar, Idaikkadar, Konganava etc. The medical treatises by these contain so many honestly recorded factors simple, short and perspicuous that they have been justly estimated as the most practically useful and valuable acquisitions to medical science.

In ancient times, there were no appliances like the modern stethoscope, sphygmograph, endoscope etc., for extending sensual perceptions into the interior of the body; nor were there apparatuses and contrivances for the test of urine, farces, sputum (phlegm) etc., to enable the physicians to observe, record and compare the phenomena of health and disease to such a degree as to bring medicine nearer and nearer to perfection, to deserve the name of what is now called' science', the physicians in those days had to depend almost entirely on pulse in the matter of diagnosing diseases; and in this, they were pre-eminently successful.

The world pulse means the beating of an artery felt with the tip of the finger or fingers at the wrist; its rate and character go to indicate a person's condition of health. It is also understood as the beating, throbbing or the rhythmical dilatation of the arteries as the blood is propelled along them by the contraction of the heart in the living body. The term pulse in medical practice is usually applied to the beat or throb felt in the radial artery at the wrist, though it may be felt over the temporal, carotid, lunar, biracial, and femoral and other arteries. The Science of Pulse is no doubt based on the theory of Trifocal and so it cannot be easily understood unless one is thoroughly acquainted with the working of the three humors in the human system. There are innumerable arteries spreads out from head to foot in the human body, and amongst them pulse is felt in twenty-four; and out of these, the one in the right hand and other in the right foot" are considered consequential, reliable and important.

According to Tirumular's work on pulse, the following constituent parts forming the fundamental principles in the human' body seem to play an important role in the variations of pulse an account of their interpenetrating nature.

1. Thasa vaayu                         - The ten vital airs.

2. Thiri naadi (Idakalai etc.,)     - The three nerve-channels Ida kali etc.

3. Aaratharam                          - The six nerve-plexuses.

4. Moondru Mandalam             - The three regions of the body named the Sun, Moon and the Fire.

            The following table will show the origin, the nature of movements, form, force or energy etc., of the pulse-waves as exhibited by the radial artery. With regard to the three humours in the human body: -

      1                2              3             4                       5                     6                   7

Humour       Vital air     Origin     Region           Movements      Finger           Degree
 of force

Wind             Apana      Faeces    Navel          Fowl                Fore-Finger          1

Bile                Prana      Water      Chest          Frog                 Mid-Finger           ½

Phlegm          Samana   Semen     Head          Snake              Ring-Finger          ¼

in the cast of Vata:- The humour vata resulting from Apana (which is centered in the faeces) operating in the lower region of the body up to the navel, is well indicated by the pulse whose movements are compared to those of a fowl. the heat of this pulse which is generally felt by pressing the fore-finger on the Radial Artery, is taken to be a unit-force for practical purposes so as to distinguish it from the other two humours representing pulse-forces ½ & ¼ of the unit-force. In the same way it can be interpreted in cases of Bile and phlegm. The pulse according to Siddhars Science is divided into five kinds viz.,

1. Vaatha Naadi                       - Pulse indicating wind humor
2. Pittha Naadi                         - Pulse showing bilious humor
3. Iya (or) Silettuma Naadi        - Pulse exhibiting phlegmatic humor.
4. Pootha Naadi                       - Pulse felt between the thumb and the forefinger
5. Guru Naadi                          - An intermediary pulse felt between fingers

 Note:               1, 2 & 3 are the three kinds of pulse felt in the some artery (radial) on pressing it with three fingers; and here lies the difficulty in finding out their nature, force and other characteristics and differentiating each of them. 4 & 5 are not observed in practice lord they are more difficult to understand on account oftheir great intricacy. It is a secret that cannot be learnt without the aid of a Spiritual Guru or a Yogi: but the other three are open to physicians and are availed of in common practice.

According to Tantric literature, there are altogether 35 million blood vessels in the human body comprising small and big ones. of these 72,000 are the best arterial which perform the junction of the live sense organs 01 the human system; and of the said 72,000, 700 arteries which are spread. From head to loot carry the essence of food by which the human body is being nourished. Again, out of these 700 arteries, 24 (16+8) are distinctly left; and amongst these, only one i.e., the Radial artery is selected for feeling the pulse, just to ascertain the derangement of the three humors.

These should not be confounded with the 10 nerves referred to, in the human body according to Siddhars' Philosophy viz: lda, Pingala, Sushumna, Gandhari, Atti, Singuvai, Alambudai, Purudan, gududan and Sankini. 0f these, the first three that are connected with the three humors are already dealt with under "Eastern Physiology"; and again, of these three, Sushumna is the most important. This artery is called the path of Salvation and it is supposed to originate from the Navel region to the skull through the vertebral column (backbone): and Siddhars have written volumes on the importance of this Sushumna.

Pulse is again sub-divided as follows according to the nature action and other characteristic, viz:

Theevira Naadi One, which is faster in rate than normal - Frequent Pulse.

Thulla Naadi                 Irregular and bounding pulse - Goat - leaps pulse.

Van Naadi                    One that is hard or wiry - Strong Pulse.

Abala Naadi                 A pulse with no strength - Weak pulse.

Nerungiya Naadi          A tense and firm pulse - Cody pulse.

Nirai Naadi                  One with a copious volume of blood - full pulse.

Kathi Naadi                  One, which is characterized by very high-tension hard pulse.
Thadangu Naadi           One, which is abnormally, slows in rate - Slow pulse.

Idaividu Naadi              One in which various beats are dropped - dropped beat pulse or intermittent pulse.

Thalambu Naadi           A pulse giving the sensation of successive waves `Undulating pulse.

Ozhungu Naadi Pulse beating at a normal rate - Normal pulse.

Koor Naadu                 A pulse in which the artery is suddenly and markedly distended - Sharp Pulse.

Men Naadi                   A pulse in which the force of the beat is very feeble - Feeble pulse.

Nun Naadi                   A small, nearly.imperceptile pulse - Formicant pulse

Kambi Naadi                A small tense’s 'Pulse - Wiry pulse.

Marana Naadi              A jerky pulse with a full expansion, followed by a sudden collapse - Collapsing pulse.

Vigarpa Naadi              A pulse in which some of the beets are strong and
                                    Others weak - Unequal pulse. .

Sanni Naadi                  Pulse indicating apoplexy.

PoonthaMangai Naadi      Pulse showing the maturity of a girl.

Odungu Naadi              A pulse, which gradually tapers away in strength Decorate, or Mouse-tail pulse.

Thudi Naadi                 A pulse, which strikes the finger rapidly Abrupt or quick pulse.

Udhara Naadi               The pulse seen in emaciated persons over the abdominal aorta-Abdominal pulse.
Irattai Naadi                 A pulse in which two beats follow each other in rapid succession, each group of two being separated from the following by a long interval - Bohemian or coupled
Kuthiraivotta Naadi      A pulse with but small excursions and those being irregular-Running pulse.

Therikku Naadi            A pulse in which the artery is sudden1y and markedly distended-jerky pulse.

It is so difficult and incomprehensible that many are ignorant of its ever today. The result is that none can be found attempting it in practice with perfect success. There is no royal road to the acquisition of the knowledge of pulse. There are no doubt certain rules and hints for the guidance of physicians; but a mere study of them will not enable any of them to acquire a practical knowledge of pulse. Success in the art depends on experience and practice and that much more on Spiritual knowledge.

It is done by pressing with the physician's three fingers (index, middle and ring) of his right hand, at a place two fingers in length just below the root of the thumb Le., a little above the wrist. The physician should feel the pulse three times by holding and letting loose the hand of the patient and then diagnose the disease with great care and caution.

According to the most commonly accepted view, the natural order* in which the forces of the three humors are indicated and are to be observed is: 1) the pulse showing wind (Vayu) in the first place above the wrist is felt underneath the fore-finger 2) that of bile (Pita), below the middle finger and 3) that of phlegm (Kappa), the third, under the ring-finger, c.f.

(Some scholars of Ayurveda assign a different order, which is entirely wrong: and it seems that they have not correctly understood the science. The natural order shown above is the correct form of the order advocated from time immemorial by the Siddhar's school of Medicine.)

The three kinds of Doshas (humours) are ascertained from the three kinds of movements of the pulse-swift, middle and slow, felt by the pressure of touch of the three fingers on the radial artery. Examination of the pulse furnishes the best criterion of the phenomena and progress of a disease. It also helps a physician to fore-tell the attack of a disease with its prognosis long before it has taken possession of the patient's system just in the same way as a chiromancer would do with regard to events before they actually come to pass by examining the streaks on the palm.

The radial artery at the wrist, which is usually chosen, shows the precise character of the pulse. In feeling the pulse, the physician has to note its impressibility, frequency, regularity, size and the different impressions it produces through the fingers. The pulse no doubt signifies whether a particular disease is due to Vayu (air), or Pitta (heat) or Kapha (water) or whether it is due to the influence of any two combined or whether it is due to the concerted action of all the three, and whether the disease is curable or incurable.

The physician as pointed out already, must be endowed with a spiritual perception without which it is impossible for him to arrive at a correct diagnosis of the exact nature of the inner working of complicated and obstinate’ diseases by simply feeling the pulse in accordance with the rules and principles of the science. It is his observation, thoughtfulness and imaginative penetration into the deep recesses of the patient's organism that will enable him to form a true estimate of his patient's condition. If he cannot penetrate into the spirit of the patient, no success can be achieved; and for real success, meditation and concentration are necessary. The nature and condition of the pulse in different diseases are fully described in the Siddhars' science, the extraordinary pulse-rates that go to indicate incurable or chronic diseases; approaching death, the prognosis diseases etc, are all well explained therein. The general explanation regarding the cause of pulse is that it is due to the "dilatation of the arterial walls which travel in the form of a wave from the, larger to smaller arteries and that the differences in the beating of pulse are due to those humors in the blood in circulation; but according to Siddhars' science it is also due to something else which is explained already as arising from the motive powers of the three vital currents Viz., (Idakalai, Pinkalai, Suzhimunai).

(Expert physicians should acquaint themselves with the nature of the different movements of living creatures referred to, as the movements of the pulse have to be compared with those of the aquatic and earthly animals.)

The Nature of Pulse: - The Physician should carefully study the nature of the beating which he feels under his fingers; as the beats are described in an intelligible manner in various ways according to the force, rate and movement by comparing them with the movements of those of animals like horses, snakes, frogs, etc, and birds like peacocks, fowl etc. The Idea of this comparison should be well borne in mind at the time of feeling the patient's pulse for purposes of corroboration.

Diseases and their cure

Disease, according to modern science is only a departure from a state of health and more frequently a kind of disturbance of the healthiness of the body to which any particular case of sickness is assigned. According to Siddhars' Philosophy, diseases in man do not ungulate in himself, but from the influences which act upon him. As already stated, man .is compared to the world because the elements that exist in the work has its in man as well; and therefore any changes in the elementary condition of the external world has its corresponding change in the human organism. There is the feeling of oneness between the external and the internal world of man; and it is upon this oneness that the doctrine of Humeral Pathology i.e., the theory of Tridoshs (Muppini) is based. This may occur through different causes via:

I. Derangement of the three humors.

Air, Bile and phlegm are considered the three supports of the system because they are the three fundamental principles in the composition of the human body. When the harmony of the said humours gets deranged owing to a relative increase or decrease of one or more of the humors, disease or death will be the result which would be well-indicated by the pulse.

(Evil astral influences do not poison the whole world, but only those places where causes for infection exist. If no germs of disease exist in the atmosphere, in the water or in the human body, the astral influence coming from outside will cause no harm; but when evil elements do exist, they attract such astral influences as may develop diseases; and no one may know the causes. Such influences consist in certain states of electricity, magnetism and other forces for which modern science has no names and modern language no, words.)

II. Astral Influences.

All the influences that come from the Sun, the planets and the starts act on human beings. If evil elements exist in the sphere of one's soul, they attract such astral influences as will develop diseases. * Astral influences do not act directly upon the physical bodies of men and animals, but upon their vital essences in which all the elements are contained; and this is what is called in Tamil, as 'Graha Dosha' Children are more liable to such diseases than adults. Moon exercises a very bad influence over diseases in general, especially during the period of New Moon; and it is for this reason that patients in our country ailing from serious illness are afraid of its virility during the approach of the New Moon or the full Moon; it may bring about at times, even lunacy, paralysis or other brain affections, stimulation of sexual passions, injurious dreams, dropsy, hysteria, fetch. Mars causes women's suffering from want of blood and nervous strength. A conjunction of the moon with other planets such as Venus, Mars etc., may make her influence still more injurious. These influences from the planets are fully dealt with under Astrology. Diseases may often occur without any assignable cause; and sometimes people get cured without the administration of any medicine. Such happenings are attributed to the planetary changes of whose action upon the human system. Therapeutic Science is unable to throw any light upon.

111. Poisonous substances.

Impure and injurious elements enter the human system in various ways such as through food, drink, inhalation or absorption by the skin of poisonous air or vapor and. so on. There are impurities of various kinds all about us; and what may be healthy for one person may be injurious to another, according to the astral influences on the person concerned and to the hidden virtues and vices contained in things in general. Rheumatism, gout, dropsy and many other diseases are often caused by the accumulation of poisonous elements.

IV. Psychological causes.

A disease state of the body is often the result of the diseased state of the mind (“Men’s sana in corpore sano"). This class of diseases includes all evils that are caused by passions, evil desires, disordered thoughts and morbid imaginations. Such psychological states' may produce physiological changes in the physical body, as for instance Shame causes a blush in the face and fear produces paleness; fear causes diarrheas; anger or envy, jaundice, violent emotions which produce hysteria, miscarriage, apoplexy, spasms, malformations of the fetus etc. also come under this class. All diseases in so far as they are not directly due external mechanical causes, are to mental conditions. The majority of diseases are doe to moral causes; and so the treatment in such cases ought to be of a moral kind, and should be instructional. In the application of such remedies, care should be taken to see that they correspond to those states of mind, which we wish to induce in the patient.

Many are the diseases caused by the obese of psychological powers resulting in boils or blisters all over the body, atrophy of organs, derangement of the mind, loss of vitality, inflammation or enlargement of the kidneys, and so on.

V. Spiritual causes.

Morbid imaginations may create hunger and thirst, produce abnormal secretions and give rise to diseases. The power of the true Spiritual Will (Ens Spiritual) is known only to a few advanced Occult students. It is a power, which may affect the whole body and produce or cure all kinds of diseases. He who has a strong Will power will have strong Spiritual power. Evil influence exercised by one person may affect another not only when he is awake but also in his sleep, poison his vitality and injure or even kill his body, because the forces created in the sphere of one's mind may be projected by powerful suggestions into the mental sphere of another through the medium of an image of wax set up or used for the purpose of attracting the evil spell; and this is a common thing known in the practice of Sorcery, Witchcraft, Black-art, (Pilli, Aeval, Sooniyam), etc.

VI. Diseases originating from the soul.

This includes all diseases originating from the above-mentioned five causes. All diseases are no doubt the effects of previously existing causes. Some originate from natural and others from spiritual causes. Spiritual causes are those that have not been created by Man during his present life, but what he had created during the former existence; and this is what we call in the popular language chronic diseases or off-shoots of Karma (Karma Viyathigal) For such causes there is no remedy, but that of waiting patiently until the evil force is exhausted and the law of Karma has had its effect by due adjustment. Even if the just retribution for our sins could be evaded at one time, it could only be postponed; and the evil would return again with accumulated interest and increased force. If the patient's time for redemption comes, then will he find an efficient physician through whom his soul will get the needed gentle relief?

Cure of diseases: Modern Science has only two kinds of cures viz. Medicinal and Surgical; but Indian Science, while accepting both the kinds, contemplate even other kinds of healing such as pranic healing, mental healing, Spiritual Healing, Thought force healing, Suggestive healing, Metaphysical healing, Magnetic cure, Water-cure, Color-cure, Insufflations etc. all psychical.

The philosophy of thus curing diseases is quite different from what is really understood by the Westerners. All influences, terrestrial and astral converge upon man and they are invisible just Like electricity; but how can, a physician recognize the manner in which they act an still less prevent or cure diseases that are caused by such actions, if he is not acquainted with the influences exercised by the forces in the astral plane?

Every metal and every plant possesses certain qualities that attract Corresponding planetary influences; and unless one knows the influence of the stars and the conjunction of planets and the qualities of drugs selected for the purpose, then, one will not be in a position to know what remedy to give for attracting such influences as may act beneficially upon the patient. Our physicians pay no attention to the positions of the planets and so they seldom cure several ailments.

To cure diseases is an art which cannot be acquired by the mere reading of books but which must be learnt through experience. Neither Academies and Institutions, nor Colleges and Schools, can turn out physicians for curing diseases but they can only grant diplomas or titles and turn out doctors which they are actually not. A theory, which is thus not confirmed by practical work, should be abandoned. Modern methods of treating and curing diseases are to a great extent looked upon and employed as if they were means by which man by his cleverness tries to cheat Nature out of her dues and acts against laws of Nature with impunity. To many persons calling themselves doctors or physicians, these are merely systems for making money to fill their pockets with and gratifying their greed. Many hundreds of years ago, the Siddhars who were the greatest Philosophers and Scientists of their age, have spoken elaborately all about the qualifications of a true physician; explained how physician should conduct themselves towards their fellowmen and have also criticized their untoward behavior towards their patients. It is therefore for the readers to judge, whether or not the same logic and principles find just the same application to day because the physicians have entirely deserted the path indicated by Nature and built up an artificial system convenient to themselves.  It is clearly stated in the Siddhars' Science that a physician who has no faith and consequently has no spiritual power in him cannot be anything but failure, even though he might have graduated from all the Medical Colleges or Academics of the world and knew by heart the contents of all the medical books that have been printed and published up-to-date. The character of the physician may act more powerfully upon the patient than all the drugs employed; and likewise it is verified among patients, that a strong belief, undoubted faith and deep, love for the physician, conduce much towards their health even more perhaps than the medicine itself so much so that they would be able even to change the qualities of the body of the sick especially when the patient reposes implicit confidence in the physician.

“Karutthurave vaathimagan vaitthiyam Saiyyila
            Kasadarave noyaali guruvaa yenni
 Karutthurave marunthukku pakthi venum
            Kaikanda vaithiyarai arinthu nandrai
 Karutthurave manadhuvara nadakka venum
            Kazhuthaiyaipo lirunthavarkku paliyaa thondrum
 Karutthurave ivaiyariya siddhardhaanum
            Kattinaar avarmanampol nadanthu kolle”.

A powerful faith and Will are certainly bound to cure where doubt has failed. There should be entire harmony between the physician and his patient. Wonderful cures may be affected by changing the internal causes from which the outward effects grow; and this can only be done by spiritual knowledge and power. Therefore a physician should have true knowledge, and not merely plenty of information gathered from books or other sources; while a patient on the other hand should have a certain amount of faith and vitality without which no cure can be affected.

What constitutes a good physician?

Writers of antiquity have handed down to us the qualities which they. Considered requisite for constituting the good physician and the following is the extract of a translation from agastiyar 500:

"He must be a person of strict veracity and of the highest sobriety and decorum, having sexual intercourse’s with no women except his own wife. He ought to be thoroughly skilled in all the commentaries on Medicine and be otherwise a man of good sense and benevolence; his heart must be charitable, his temper calm, and his constant study should be how to be useful and to do good to the public" "When a sick person expresses himself peevishly or hastily, a good physician is not thereby to be provoked to impatience; he should be mild. And courageous and should cherish a cheerful hope of being able to save his patient's life; he should be frank, communicative, impartial and liberal; and yet ever rigid extracting an adherence to whatever regimen or rules he may think it necessary to enjoin upon the patient.

The following is another stanza quoted from Agastiya Paripuraanam:

“Palitthidave venumendraal pulatthiyane iyaa
            Parilulla uyirgalellam thannuyirpo lenni
 Salitthidaa yorupothum tharumam seyya
            Santhayangal seyyathe sathisai yaathe
 Salitthidave karumatthaal piravi kittum
            Tharumatthaal saayuchya padhavi kittum
Salitthidaai sarguruvai adutthuk kaaru
            Sathaakaalam sathaasivanai potri paare”

From this it is clear that s physician who· aspires for success in his profession is expected to treat the poor free of charge, to maintain human sympathy and to be charitably d1sposed towards the public and above all to be taintless spiritualist.

The Science of Tamil Medicine, unlike other systems, is a peculiarly complex system of science as it will be found that it is purely intended for adepts among men and not for the ordinary; and that is why they had included in the works of medicine Alchemy, Philosophy, Magic, Yoga, etc., with a view to elevate them in the long run to the level of spiritualists; and it is also the reason why this science expects every one who practices it to be far above the level of ordinary mankind. There are numerous works on Siddha Medicine containing in every one of them the peculiar distinctive qualities that are expected of physicians on who rests the welfare of the entire mankind. The following is a summary of those characteristics that constitute a true physician:

(1)        The Physician ought to be an *Alchemist or the son of an Alchemist (Vaathi magan vaitthiyan). He should understand the Chemistry of Life; and must have every natural qualification for his Occupation. The pseudo-physician bases his only on books; but the genuine physician depends for success on his knowledge and skill. He should exercise his art not for his own sake or benefit, but for the sake of his patients; and his power should rest not merely upon Medicine but also on Spiritual Truth.

(2)        A physician should be a philosopher acquainted with the laws of external Nature. Knowledge of Nature is the foundation of the Science of Medicine; and it is taught by the four great departments of science viz., Alchemy, Physical Science, Philosophy and Astronomy.

(3)        He should be an Astronomer; and this means he should know the mental sphere wherein man lives, with all its stars and constellations; the influences of the seasons of heat and cold, of dryness and moisture, of light and darkness and so on, as also the organism of Man. A physician who knows nothing about Cosmology will know little about diseases. He should know what exists in Nature and upon earth, what lives in the five elements and how they act upon men.

(4)        He should be well versed in physical science, should know the action of medicines and learn by his own experience how to regulate the diet of the patient, the ordinary course of a disease and - its premonitory symptoms.

(5)        A True Physician should be able to do his own thinking, and should not mechanically employ the thoughts of others. He should be the product of Nature and not of mere speculation or imagination.

(6)        A Physician who knows nothing else about his patient but what the latter has told him knows very little indeed.

(7)        He should not depend too much on the accomplishments of the animal intellect in his brain; he should listen to the Divine Voice, which emanates from his soul and learn to understand the same.

(8)        He should have a knowledge, which cannot be acquired by reading books, being a gift of Divine Wisdom.

(9)        He should be wedded to his art as a man is to his wife and should love it with all his heart and soul for its own sake and not for the purpose of making money or realizing his own ambition.

(10)      He must have the faculty of intuition, i.e., knowledge of his own and not knowledge borrowed from books.

(11)      He must use only medicines prepared by him and not those either borrows or pure hazed from others.

(12)      He should try to relieve his patient from sufferings, but on no account delay his treatment for extracting money.

(13)      He should not venture to treat a patient without arriving at a correct diagnosis, also he will be committing a great sin, which will not only affect him but also visit on his future generations. 

(Wherever the word Alchemy or Alchemist occurs, it has to be token to mean for our present purposes Chemistry and chemist respectively, i.e. The knowledge of the properties of matter or other elementary substances and one who is proficient in that knowledge; because a doubt may arise as to why a physician if on alchemist, should practice medicine at all. As understood by Siddhars, it would only mean that on adept who is skilled in Alchemy should have recourse to it only in extreme cases where he is in need of money but should never make use of the art as he liked at all times; and it is for this. Very reason it is held in secrecy. There is no Alchemy without Chemistry).

Ancient Chemistry

(22)      Although Chemistry has come to be known as an exact Science within a comparatively recent period, yet its origin dates back to the earliest times of philosophical study. The word 'Chemistry' is closely associated with that of Alchemy. In a book on "Chemistry in Modern Life", from the pen of the renowned Swedish Chemist named Svante Auguste, the author has done ample justice to the claims of India as the land in which the beginnings of Chemistry as a science can first be traced in the history 'of human civilization.

In India, Chemistry had been known as a science auxiliary to Medicine which was practiced openly after the beginning of the Christian era in the Buddhist monasteries where the priests were found engaged in curing all starts of diseases; and they believed not only in a specific compound but also in the utterance of a specific religious formula considered necessary for the physician's healing power; and it is thus that chemistry took a religious impress.

Chemistry as defined now, means the science which relates to the peculiar properties of matter an of the elementary substances, the proportions in which the elements combine, the ways and means of their separation, the laws which govern and affect them and all the connected and allied phenomena; but the simpler definition is-it is the Anatomy of natural bodies by fire.

In the Siddha System, Chemistry had been found developed into a Science auxiliary to medicine and Alchemy. It was found useful in the preparation of medicines for curing all sorts of sufferings, spiritual as well as corporeal and also in transmutation of baser metals into gold. The knowledge of plants and minerals was of a very high order. Siddhar's presentation of Chemistry is masterly so far as it has gone, but unfortunately it is fragmentary. If one really wants to gather knowledge and collect materials for research in the field of ancient chemistry, he can find all that he wants only in works of Tamil Siddhars; and no such treatises on the subject could be found therein elsewhere dealing so exhaustively as found therein; and moreover the Siddhars were the greatest scientists both material and spiritual, of ancient days; and they were fully acquainted with almost all the branches of science.

It is necessary here to allude to the address of Dr.P.C. Ray at the Madras Medicial College on 02-12-1926 on Ancient Hindu Chemistry.

“In the economic interests of the country, it would be well to develop such a simple and cheap system as in the ancient past and find supplemental counter parts on Indian economic scale instead of on the western luxuriant scale. India cannot stand any longer expenditure on a large scale on buildings and costly apparatuses and the like; and so the work must be made comparatively cheap; and so we must adapt ourselves to methods and measures having regard to the financial possibilities of the country.”

Several were the minerals known to and made use of by the Siddha Physicians in their medicines; and a list of them will be found in this volume under the heading (Ubarasach Sarakku) (natural substances). The Siddha Physicians were also well acquainted with the process of obtaining metals from their ores.

When at long intervals, by merely turning over the abstruse and moth eaten pages of some of the Siddha works, one is sure to be struck with awe and admiration to find therein mention of processes like calcinations of metals, preparation of quaint essences, extracts and essences from minerals end other natural bodies or substances (see  Ubasarach satthu), preparations of mercury such as animated mercury, pills for flying in the air, cachinnated powders such as red-oxide, (Senthooram) and Chunnam with the marvelous property to transmuting metals, preparation of caustic alkali from the ashes of plants and several other preparations of medicine with high potency and power, some of them even capable of rejuvenating the human system. Do not all these go to signify the fact that the knowledge of Siddhars in Chemistry taken together with that of Alchemy (infra) should have been far superior to and in advance of the so call d scientific knowledge dominant at the present day? One who has made a special study of the Siddhars' Science will naturally come 10 the conclusion that it is the fountainhead of all knowledge and sciences.

We also find application in Medicine of so many chemical products of their times proving that they were of course the first to prepare valuable chemical or other extraordinary methods unknown to the present day. The process of preparing Seynir (Seyaneer) and distilling several kinds of acids were not unknown to them since the distilled products had been at them of much help in using as solvents. Unfortunately, the Siddhars' Scientific Terminology is difficult and highly technical in character and what is even deplorable, they are not fully expressive

Their knowledge of poisons also was not in any way inferior; it had been very exhaustive and surpassing as seen farm the description of the Properties of poisons furnished below. According to their science, poisons are divided into two main classes, viz: Natural or Native and Artificial or Synthetic, each of which is further sub-divided into 32 kinds making up a total of 64 kinds.

The following are a few of the several instances showing in detail the several classifications and preparations contemplated in Siddhars' works; and these will not fail to convince the readers of the high proficiency, unparalleled knowledge and uncommon development which the Siddhars had attained in this branch of science from very ancient times and even at such a remote period as that when Europe was completely immersed in ignorance and barbarism.

1. (a)    Marunthuppu, Rasam, Kandhagam, Paashanam, Naagam, Elingam, Veeram, Saaram, Pooram muthalaanavaigalai kondu thayaarittha Parpam, Senthooram, Chunnam muthaliya marunthugal -- Calx or Calcined Oxides, red-oxides, carbonate, etc., prepared from chemical salts, mercury, sulphur, arsenic zinc, vermilion, corrosive sublimate, sal-ammoniac, bichlorid of mercury, etc.

(b)   Vangam, Sembu, Erumbu, Rasam, muthaliya ulogangal Sutthi, Thaalaga Sutthi, Kaarasutthi, Padikaaram, Elingam, Veeram, Pooram ivaigalin sutthi muthaliyavaigal  - -Cleansing process of metals like lead, copper, iron, mercury, etc., and compounds like orpiment, sol-ammoniac, borax, alum, vermillion, corrosive sublimate, sub-chloride of mercury, etc.

The Siddha System, which was in vogue in Southern India long before the Aryan period, had fallen into disuse; and consequently a major portion of the Siddha works was either destroyed or lost for want of sufficient encouragement. Later generations could not take it up in right earnest without State aid, as at the time of East India Company, almost all the Indian Chemical Works and factories in various places were ordered to be closed down on the ground that the preparations were crude and dangerous, but really with a view to encourage and promote Western Medicine. Subsequently, the passing of the Poisons Act gave the final deathblow especially to the Siddha System dealing entirely with medicines prepared with metals and metallic poisons and this gave rise to the practice of Ayurveda in South India. It is not still more regrettable to note that nor research work was taken up in this direction even during the time of the Asiatic researches or even subsequently.

Countless Chinese priests came to India and studied Tamil Medicine of whom Bogar and Pullippani are to be remembered specially, Ramadevar also learnt the Siddha system of medicine and propagated it in several countries such as Arabia, Egypt and so on. The terms Seena sarakku, Seena sarkarai, Seena karkandu, Seena karpooram, Seena suruvaa, Seena Kaliman, Seena kizhangu, Seena chunnam, Seena chukkan, Seena rekku, Seenap pattai, Seena parutthi, Seena pugai, Seena pul, Seena malligai, Seena mutthu, Seena milagu, etc., ret erring to these chief articles of import in those days tram own not only the commercial relations that existed between the two countries, but also the close similarly of and relationship between the two Systems of medicines as are apparent from the use of their drugs in India in the preparations of Tamil Medicines, as a substitute for Indigenous drugs. . That chemical knowledge ought to have been transferred from India to the accidental countries is very plain from the fact that Siddhars like Bogar, Rama Devar alias Yacob and others and other places spreading the knowledge as they went along; and this has already been touched upon before.




That Alchemy has appealed to the imagination of man from centuries is evident from the prominent part it has played in the ancient sciences and from legends of the past, In India, unlike other countries, its origin, growth and development are interwoven with a phase of religious activity. It is regarded as a Divine and sacred science and art enveloped in mystery and could only be approached with reference, faith and due piety.

Although no one seems to have ever witnessed any person effecting conversion of inferior metals into gold, still the idea which had taken a firm hold of the imagination of many would never leave them even now, on account of the man's innate avarice and desire to become rich. Man; are the families that have been ruined on account of this mad thirst for making gold; and therefore, It has been thought necessary to deal with the subject somewhat elaborately so as to put all on the alert so to the false notions enshrouding the subject. It is a science by which things may be decomposed and recomposed, and their essential nature changed, raised higher or transmuted into one another.

According to Tamil Siddhar's Science, it is the grand touchstone of natural wisdom; and it is purely of a Spiritual Origin; and hence for one to be an Alchemist, he should necessarily be a Spiritualist. Therefore, the employment of strong wills, benevolence, charity, and above all purity of mind are the essential qualifications of an Alchemist. Like a born physician, he should be a "born alchemist, taking: birth at a particular constellation of stars, according to his former Karma--which in Tamil popular language is known as which again only means what was left undone or Jeff done imperfectly in the former birth is bound to be accomplished or completed perhaps in the present birth. 

“ Yerendru sonnathina leruvaano
   Enmakkal, vittakurai vanthaal eithum”

As it is an art not to be practiced for material advantages, it is not intended for materialists who can never expect any fruitful result in their attempts. Siddhars have written most profoundly and with utmost critical accuracy, yet obscurely; but they all describe the thing sought for indirectly. Some say they are forbidden to reveal the process; while others have declared it plainly and intelligibly leaving out some little points, which they have kept for themselves. The different parts of the magnum opus have to be found out by a comparison of the works of several authors--one of them describes the materials, another, their preparations, a third, their calcinations, a fourth, the rules etc., for regulating heat and so on. This arrangement is one of the most serious obstacles' in the way of understanding alchemical processes in addition to the many other difficulties that have been thrown in the way with the set purpose of concealing the art, aim and processes and thwarting the attempts of the uninitiated.

(The Astrological doctrine is, that each planet governs a particular mineral; an so to each of the seven metals was assigned the symbol of the planet which is believed to influence it such as, sun to gold, Moon to silver, Jupiter to tin, Venus to copper, Mercury to quick-silver, Saturn to lead, and Mars to iron. From this close connection between the planets and the metals came the spiritual connection that existed between Alchemy and Astrology. The planets have the power of maturing metals in the earth; and so alchemists believed that they influenced their operations, which aimed at transmutation. The Greek writers also refer to the mystic relationship that subsists between the seven planets and the seven metals.)

In the first place, the alchemists have deliberately made use of an elaborated system of signs for materials, astrological signs like (Mathi), Sun and Moon, and so on, to indicate the seven metals. In addition to these, there are signs for every important substance known to them and also for various pieces of apparatus employed by them in common use. A vocabulary of words was also made use of, each representing an alchemist's ideas quite different from its meaning' in our ordinary speech as for instance (vazhalai allathu Mooppu), the three salts; (Vallaarai allathu Moondru maatha pindam) fetus three months old; (Poorvamooppu allathu pinda maavu) an unctuous substance covering the skin to the fetus; (Suttha salam allathu panikkudaththu neer) liquor amni; (Vagaaram allathu Vaatham) alchemy to unless a student is inspired with a genuine and dauntless enthusiasm, this technology (Paripaashai) is bound to deter, him from advancing further in the study of this art. Siddhars have thus, enshrouded their rations with symbolism; and have given their materials fantastic names to conceal their identity from those outside the mystic cult. Even the I r unfortunately not employed with a uniform ‘signification, It is to the credit of the Siddhars that they never sold their secrets; but were always ready to communicate them gratuitously to a chosen few whom they deemed to be worthy recipients. But here also, it has to be observed tat they never communicated the whole of an operation to anybody at any one time and at any one place; and the same caution was invariably observed throughout in their works even as it was the case with alchemical writers. Even adepts in that science held its secrets inviolate and did not associate with any but their trusted colleagues. It is not even definitely known what methods they employed in the science and what raw materials they chiefly used—whether of mineral, animal or vegetable origin.

The Siddhars were also aware of the several alchemical operations divided into several processes such as – calcinations (Pudamidugai), Sublimation (Pathangam), distillation (vaalaiyilidugai), dissolution (Karaiththal), fusion (Urukkugai), separation (pirivinai paduthugai), conjuction or combination (uravakkugai), coagalation (Uraiyach saigai), cibation (oottankodutthal), fermentation (pulikka vaitthal), exaltation, i.e., the action or process of refining gold (matruyarvu), fixation, i.e., bringing to the condition of being non-volatile, i.e., to the state of  resisting the action of fire (neruppirkodathabadi kattuthal), purification (suththi saigai), incineration of metals (Neetral), animation or vivification (saaranai kodutthal), fabrication (vaippu allathu undakkal), liquification (neerakkal), extraction (pirittheduththal) and so on. Some modern scientists and pharmaceutical chemists boast of having discovered some of the above processes under different circumstances.

That they were very much interested in the mineral side of Alchemy is evidenced from the fact that medicines prepared from minerals and salts were often freely used in this art and that Mercury occupied the central place in Alchemy. 'Muppu' was chiefly believed in as a Universal Salt for calcining metals and other metallic compounds and as such compounded in all medicines. Even the caustic alkali preparation from Fuller's earth played an important role; and whenever this alkali acted too strongly, it was generally moderated by the addition of sour-gruel (acetic acid) known as kaadi.

The Siddhars were also aware of the mystic process of killing a metal which means depriving a metal of its characteristic physical properties such as its color, lustre etc; and a list of such agents are already given under 'Chemistry' (supra). Mercury is said to be Siva's generative principle and its efficacy is extolled when it has been subjected six times to the process of killing. Many are the volumes written by Siddhars; some of them original and genuine while others of later day productions, probably written by their followers. Some people are inclined to think or are led to believe that the later generations took up the visionary and fantastical side of the older alchemy, compiled mystical trash into books and fathered them on Agastya, Konganava, Sattaimuni and other great alchemical writers. Even the style employed in those books, is a farrago of mystical metaphors, full of technical terms and code words without any clue whatever to their interpretation.

(According to the philosophers of the West, the world is composed of four elements, but in the writings of alchemists, there re said to be five elements in the composition of the world. The fifth elements (quintessential) which is perhaps analogous  to the primal matter of the Greeks, is supposed to be a subtle extract, the quintessence of the other four.
According to ancient Hindu philosophers, the fifth element from which all the other four are derived, is supposed to be medium for propagating sound etc., and which, in consequence has something in common with the modern concept of ether pervading all space.
Siddhars here push their chemical processes into the region of the subtle matter; and therefore mere physical transmutation, which is the one and only supreme end of a practical alchemist, always sinks in to complete insignificance. The spiritual aspect at last triumphs over the base in man.)


 Having dealt so elaborately with this subject, it is now our purpose to know what it is that turns or transmutes baser' metals into gold. It is well known that all substances spring from some Primordial matter called by so many terms--the Muppu of Siddhars, the Portly (of Sir William Crooke), Travis a (of Bernard) and the Primatene (of Paracelus); and all these indicate the same.

All philosophers agree that, if the first matter is found, we may proceed without much difficulty where is it to be found from is then the question? The answer is that it is found in us. Then how to draw attract the secret matter of the stone out of us? Not by any common and easy means, surely! The secret is--our soul has the power to do it, who n the body is free from any pollution and the heart void of malice and The soul is then a free agent and has the power to act spiritually glacially upon any matter whatsoever, and, therefore, the first matter the prima material of the lapis philosophorum is in the soul and the extracting of it is to bring the dormant power of the pure living, breathing spirit and the eternal soul into active functioning. Thus, it can be seen that alchemy in one of its phases is really Psycho-Chemistry.

Rejuvenation and Immortality


Having so far dealt with Yoga and themes allied to it, we now come to Rejenuvation popularity know as (Karpasaathanai). This word Literally means the power of securing the body from the effects of age. According to Siddhars' Science Rejuvenation does not necessarily mean I tongs the old to Youth; for it may simply mean the maintenance of youth without reaching old age; and if youth is maintained perpetually, it I comes Immortality. So Rejuvenation is a means for prolonging life and forms a part of Immortality. Every one in this world would like to get himself I juveniles and live for a long time with a purely selfish motive and run surrealistic purpose; but the art and medicine are intended only for practicing Yogis and avowed celibates who have renounced the luxuries of life and learned to live a life wholly dedicated to the service of humanity. They have therefore to live for a long time for the good of the world.

The advantages derived from this treatment for rejuvenation practiced by one according to his age, come under the following principles, visit resorted to in the juvenile period,’ in youth or in the middle age, the individual will be found to maintain though hi in, when the started taking the medicine But if the medicine is taken in the age of fifty, he will be found changed into a lad of sixteen years; if at the age of eighty, to one of 20 years without any further development of the body; and in cases of persons above eighty, rejuvenation is impossible for the reason, that all the tissues and nerves will be found relaxed and Deleted of their vital strength. 

Plants' elixir of life obtained from the vegetable kingdom known as 'Sanjivi drugs' (Sattaimunikarpa vithi) 101 with their extraordinary virtues of restoring the dead to lite and also plants known as Kalpa drugs (Sanjeevi Mooligai), such as Black gooseberry (Karpa Mooligaigal), etc., all under different classifications as are mentioned below:

1. Those that rejuvenate the system immediately upon' being taken.

2. Those that only invigorate the system but not prolonging life.

3. Those that only prolong life.

4. Those that render the body invulnerable.

5. Those that import alchemical virtues to the system and its emanations.

6. Those that remove the wrinkles on the outer layer of the skin.

7. Those that turn grey hair black.

8. Those that help one in sitting at Yoga for a very long time.

9. Those that aid one flying in the Arial region.

10. Those that help one to see the astral light (Jothi).

The Kayakalpa method is primarily meant for the benefit of great sages and other savants who sacrifice their own interests for the uplift of humanity and for those who are ever spiritually inclined.

According to western conception, the magical means of preserving youth in the body is to prevent the body of man from growing old by carefully maintaining his primeval freshness of sentiments and thoughts. There is a proverb "Become children in heart and you will keep young in body". By changing the habits of the soul we can assuredly change those of the body. Causes, which contribute towards man becoming old, are after all rancorous and bitter thoughts, unfavorable judgment of others, fury of wounded pride and of ill-satisfied passions and similar emotional irritations. A benevolent and mild philosophy alone would save one from all these and other kindred evils. 

Rejuvenation for the purpose of immortalisation is therefore nothing but a conservation of vital energy, which is considered by Siddhars to be a very delicate problem not to be discussed in public. It is therefore a purely a very delicate problem not to be discussed in public. It is therefore a purely private matter requiring long and steady training. Siddhars knew very well how sex-energy can be conserved and utilized for the development of the body and the mind of the individual, without allowing it to be dissipated in unnatural excesses as it is generally done by so many uninformed people. In order to be successful herein, it is necessary that one should lead a celibate’s life (complete continence or long abstention from sexual intercourse). It may be asked here whether this will not affect the constitution since it becomes an attempt hostile to Nature. A Yogi or any person given to Spiritualism cannot at all be affected by such restaint from sex-passion.

Immortality being one of the most consoling and comforting dogmas of religion, should be reserved for the aspirations of Man’s faith; and can never therefore be proved by facts acceptable to the cold criticism of science. It can nevertheless be proved by incontestable facts contemplated by Siddhars; but it can never be proved by facts contemplated expected by the present day scientists, Matters which present day science cannot at present ascertain with convincing satisfaction can only be reasoned through hypothesis. Humanity is ordinarily bound to know nothing of the Superhuman, which is beyond its average scope. Immortality in the flesh is a possibility; and a physical body can be kept on as long as the spirit desires its use; and it is only then that this body instead of decreasing in strength and vigor as years go on, comes to maintain perpetual Youth according to the siddhars system. We have every reason and foundation of fact to believe in the theories put forth by Siddhars in their valuable treatises. Immortals according to them are beings credited with powers distinct from and greater than those of mortals, and the gain these supernatural powers through taking to Kalpam.

When rank materialism is growing present, there has been evidenced mo get more an more rampant as of re an ever an earnest demand for a longer and more perfect physical life; and more human minds ore now actuated by the actively curious desire to know in full the possibilities of life. They have come to appreciate more than ever the advantages and benefits of living in the physical. It should here be borne in mind that man will realize these results only through the exercise of a gradual series of spiritual processes operating on and refining the material body; and these results could be achieved only through following Siddhars' teachings on Rejuvenation.

All diseases (lack of physical ease) manifested during the process of rejuvenation emanate from spiritual causes; and the aim of all of which is the reconstruction of the physical body, first through receiving new elements, and the next in the casting off of old ones. At the back however of all these processes of physical reconstruction, there is bound to be going on the for more important process of reconstruction of the spirit by which the body is being built. These processes are continuously going on within the body operating thought the skin the stomach and the other organs. All kinds of sickness are at best an effort of the spirit roused to increased activity by the fresh influx horses arising from rejuvenation (Karpa sitthi) only to sit off all old and relatively dead matter. But as this secret at the Siddhars has not been recognized by the human race, this spiritual process or effort with its accompanying pain and discomfort indicated by Siddhars, has been held in fear and shunned as signals for or the approach of death.

So, with no knowledge of the spiritual Law and judging everything from the materialistic standpoint, the processes described by Siddhars for Rejuvenation are surely bound to led men to doubt their efficacy; but only after a course of spiritual advancement they will come to receive so much of this influx of new life so as to be obliged to work for further possibilities of existence as also to know how to realize them. As human minds come to trust the Supreme Power in however small an extent and appreciate the idea of the Siddhars that physical disease and physical death are not absolute necessities, then the higher Power is surely bound to prevail. Although one has to face ordeals at every step in the course of treatment by elixir or Kalpam one will surely find his body better and stronger after each successive stage of the struggle; and these struggles also will gradually become less and less severe until they eventually cease and disappear altogether.

Medicines and material remedies may also greatly help one in this do process of throwing-off useless matter, if used according to the instructions assistance in the attempt one has to find and faith to be of great This has already been touched upon under Rejuvenation’.

It is believed according to Siddha science that preparations from mercury alone can invest the body imortality and Immunity from decay; and thus enable  one to  Conquer disease and death. Mercury is profitable in Science. And its study is regarded as highly useful and profitable Science.

Muppu' mentioned in Siddhars' science and other preparation under categorized under Universal Medicine will also help one to conquer death. It may be asked here and pertinently too whether all Siddhars who are believed to have had the full benefit of such treatments for rejuvenation are still alive. It is believed with dependable reasons that they do live but no one can see them in their physical bodies or corporeal envelopes. They are invisible for the reason that they can dematerialize and rematerialize their bodies as nothing is too high or impossible of achievement for them. We have even heard of many instances of Saints and Sadhus entering locked up and well-guarded or closed doors and issuing out of prisons thereby astonishing stupefied sentries who in their numbness recollect having beheld them as though in a dream, and that too only after they had passed! In fact they may be regarded as the real guardians of the world.

Siddhars consider that death is not at all a necessary part of or evern in human life; and that there is no law of Nature that calls for death as a necessary happening. Man dies as a result of his own traditional ignorance, fear, imitation and erroneous autosuggestion. Siddhars through their spiritual power, rearrange the molecules in their bodies in such a fashion that they get no sickness at any time; and what we call death and that it is also possible for them to make fresh bodies here, by simply re-arranging and thus changing the molecules as often as it is necessary without casting off the existing body.

According to western ideas, death ordinarily never occurs suddenly; but it is brought about only by degrees, the sufferer either knowing or not knowing of it. Death is neither the end of life nor the beginning of immortality but it is a continuation and transformation in matter always repeated, according to the conception of the Hindus. Death in fact can no more be an absolute end than birth is a real beginning of human life. What we call death is but a rebirth into a new life. The human body is no more than a garment of the Soul to which the former is coupled or linked by sensibility; and when this sensibility ceases to function, it may be taken as a sure sign that the Soul is departing from the body. It is only when the garment is completely worn out or seriously and irreparably injured, that the Soul quits it at once and for all. His is exactly what happens in all cases of natural death. To revive a dead person, the most powerful chains of attraction that have quitted the form body should be promptly and energetically brought together forthwith to draw the soul back to his body. If the operator can only inspire the Soul of the defunct with the potentiality of his medicine or high magnetic powers, it will certainly return to the body through the persuasion of the thaumaturgy.

So long as the blood in the body is not rendered absolutely cold and so long as the nerves can be galvanized, no man could be said to be wholly dead; and if all the essential organs of life remain undestroyed, the Spirit may be recalled either through the effects of a powerful medicine or those of a powerful Will.

While every minute atom of India's vast cultural store of human knowledge had thus been capitalized by the western nations who. Invaded and drained this Country of all her intellectual wealth, this ancient land continued to be the victim of a deliberately organized and intensely purposeful literary piracy as it were. Nevertheless, India still lives head erect and bids fair to live on for ever as the illustrious procreator and glorious possessor of all the basic elements and factors contributing to the resultant triumph of western sciences to-day; and the secret of all this fundamental basic strength lies in the fact of its being absolutely based upon a deep spiritual insight, knowledge and strength. Western medical science with all its allied sciences despite all its booming illusory success has been amply evidenced to be after all a failure without the natural basic spiritual founding.