FUNDAMENTAL OF SIDDHA
Nature is man and man is nature.
Man is said to the microsm and the universe is macrosm .
Man is nothing but the universe.
Human body contains five elements also as in the universe.
The universe consists of two essential entitles matter and energy.
Which the siddha’s call as shiva and sakthi .the two co-exist and are inseparable.
The universe consists of the five elements. They are primordial elements (bhoothams)
Mann - Solid
Near - Fluid
Thee - Radiance
Vayu - Gas
Akasam - Ether
All created evolved matter in the world. Whether it is animal, vegetable or mineral.
The five elements, which should not be confused with the elements of modern chemistry.
The human Anatomy and physiology, the causative factor of diseases the food for sustenance all falls within the five elements categories.
Basic of treatment
The three physical elements of the external world i.e. air, heat and water form the three fundamental principles on which the constitution of the human being has been based. The three elements are knows as “humors” as they enter the body. They are called tridosha. These three humors viz. wind, bile and phlegm represent respectively the air, fire and water of the five elements, which form the connecting link between microcosm or man and macrocosm or the world. The three humors maintain the human body through their combined functioning. When in imbalance they bring about diseases. The normal order of vatha, pitta and kappa is in the proportion of 1:1/2:1/4 or 4:2:1 respectively.
If all the factors work properly, the body will be healthy. Imbalance due to astral influences, poisonous substances and psychological and spiritual factors may also be important in causing imbalance.
1.Classification according to the variations in three humors, 2. Clinical signs, 3.Cause, 4.The disease caused by worms, parasites and microbes, 5.Varma and Accident, and 8.Psychiatric illness”.
Medicines are prescribed to set right the imbalance in the life factors either by addition, reduction or neutralization, since all mater (herbs, minerals and metals) contain the five elements and hence the three factors. The presence of a particular factor in a substance is found by the taste of the latter. The five elements in different combinations form six tastes.
The words, Noai nadal. Noai mudhal nadal indicate the approach to the process of diagnosis. Noai nadal means the approach to the disease. Noai mudhal nadal denotes determination of the etiology of the disease. To diagnosis, the physician investigates the cause of the disease, the signs and symptoms, complicated if any, and pathological tissue (thathu) changes. The siddhars look at body and the disease together to arrive at a conclusion regarding the condition or diagnosis of the case. This conclusion is an essential pre-requisite for treatment.
Diseases are diagnosed mainly with the help of signs and symptoms. In addition there are eight other important factors, which help in finding out the disease and imbalance life factors. They are pulse (nadi), touch (sparism), tongue (naa), color (niram) speech (mozhi) eyes (vizhi) faeces (malam) and urine (moothiram).
The five elements of the body and their life factors: Vata, Pitta and kapha. Vata consists of Akash and vayu. Pitta consists of three and kapha consists of Prithvi and Aapa.
In scientific parlance, vata comprehends which comes under the function of the central and sympathetic nervous systems. Pitta consists of the function of thermo genesis and heat production, metabolism within the limits, the process of digestion. Coloration of blood excretion and secretion. Kapha looks after the regulation of the heart and the formation of various glands and structures. These eight factors are widely described by the siddhars who classified the diseases into 4448 varieties, by different siddhars.
The science of pulse is peculiar to the siddha system of medicine. Traditionally the guru taught this science of pulse to his disciples. Diagnosis of disease by the pulse requires great skill and experience. According to the siddhas, the pulse is the manifestation of prana in living beings- prana being the cosmic energy responsible for the evolution of the universe. It penetrates, surrounds and seeps through everything.The science of pulse forms a very important branch of Siddha medicine and in fact it is invented by Tamil Siddhars only. Later on ayurvedic system borrowed it but its application is wrong and contrary to the fact .In that ancient time, there were no medical appliances like thermometer, stethoscope or scanning machine etc. and therefore the Tamil Siddhars found an ingenious way of determining the condition of the body and the root cause of the disease. Feeling of the pulse (“naade”as it is known in Tamil)is the means to determine the root cause of one’s illness.
Pulse, Three Humors & Six Taste
The pulse, the three humors and the six tastes are inter-related .In fact; it is the gift of nature to mankind. A no-doctor ordinary person can understand as what is basically wrong with him/her, using the taste conditions, so that he /she could take appropriate steps. For example, if there is sour taste in the tongue it indicates more of wind; if there is bitter taste in the tongue it indicates more of bile; if there is sweet taste in the tongue it indicates more of phlegm. Then accordingly he/she can change foods. Well, if it doesn’t work he/she can go to a doctor .The doctor will analyze the conditions of the three humors using the pulse .Now; the pulse is generally felt on the radial artery above the wrist. The taste can be used to determine the excess of a particular humor. The above figure indicates as how to use the pulse in determining the nature of degeneration. Please note that both sour and astringent tastes control wind humor. Now, the functions of these two tastes are different .If wind humor is degenerated then which taste is responsible for this situation? By feeling the pulse one can determine whether the sour or astringent pulse is altered .If it is found that pulse related to sour taste altered then one should be advised to eat more or less as the case may be- of food with sour taste. On the other hand if one changes food with astringent taste then there will not be any improvement in one’s condition .Nay, it may even become worse. In this way many diseases can be found and proper advice can be given.
The physiology in the siddha system involves 96 basic factors, seven body factors. 14 reflexes, three malas (water), and four body fires and important featuresThe Siddhars used various alchemical operations divided into several processes such as calcinations (“ pudamiduthal ” in tamil); sublimation (“ pathangam ”); distillation (“vaalai “); dissolution (“karaiththal”); fusion (“urukkuthal”); separation (“piriththal”); conjuction (“uRavaaduthal”) ; coagulation (“uRaiyach cheythal”) ; fermentation (“puLikka vaiththal”) ; etc.
The preparation of “paRam” and “chendhooram” by calcinations is perhaps the highlight of Siddha medicine showing to what great extent chemistry was developed even in those days. These preparations will have more shelf life than herbal powders and their potency also will be more than the ordinary medicines. These were adopted by ayurvedha later on.
The material medica consists of herbs, minerals and animal products. Innumerable varieties of herbs are mentioned in siddha literature. Many of these were described in a manner very difficult to understand. The siddhars dealt with 11 metals, 64 pashanam (mercurial, no-mercurial), 120 uparasams (salts and other minerals) and animal products in preparing medicines.
There are 64 types of medicines. Of these, 32 varieties are internal. Some varieties of internal medicines once prepared can be used for many years. They have a long life time and their potency will not be lost.
The siddhars were the pioneers in the use of metals and minerals in the treatment of diseases. There are a number of pharmaceutical preparations common in siddha. The common preparation is Bhasma (calcined metals and minerals), Churna (powers), kashaya (decoctions) Lehya (confections), Ghrita (ghee preparations) and Taila (oil preparations). The preparations in which the siddhars specialized are Chummna (metallic preparations that become alkaline. Mezhucu (waxy preparations) Kattu (preparations which are impervious the water and flame).
For a medicine to be effective, the inorganic substances have to be brought to their atomic form. The siddhars developed the knowledge of bringing inorganic substances into atomic and into atomic ionic form which can be easily absorbed in the system when ground with herbal juices and put in the fire with a calculated number of cowdung cakes.
Lakhs of formulations are available in siddha literatures. Though a few are printed, many are still in manuscripts and palm leaves.
Siddha Chemistry (alchemy)
The siddhars’ knowledge of latro-chemistry, minerals, metals and plants was stupendous. They successfully used this from time immemorial. Processes like calcinations of mercury minerals and metals land the preparation of a super salt known as muppa – animated mercury pills with high potency possessing marvelous properties of transmuting metals and capable of rejuvenating the entire human system bear ample testimony to the fact that, even in the remote past when knowledge in chemical technology was not fully developed, the siddhars had an unparalleled knowledge of medicine. The process of minerals and metals are special features of siddha system of medicine and are not known to other medical systems in India or other countries.
The siddha system included not only medicine and alchemy but also yoga and philosophy. Yoga literally means union. It is the means by which is obtained omniscience and the power of achieving and controlling mighty things. It is an applied science, a systemized collection of laws applied to bring about a definite end. Siddha science acknowledges 64 kinds of Yoga. There are eight elements in Yoga eyana, niyama, asana, pranayama, prathyagra, tharani, thiyanam and Samadhi. It is said by the siddhars that there is no yoga without concentration or fixedness of mind. There are no miraculous powers without rousing the kundalini. There is no wisdom without mind: there is no body without repression of respiration.
The siddha science of breath is known as vasi (the practice of correct breathing). There are different phases in science of breath physical, mental and spiritual. The kind of controlled breathing is the scientific method of charging one’s self with vitality and personal magnetism and it is known to the ancients as pranayama. Poorakam (inspiration), rechagam (suppression) are the three inevitable steps in pranayanam.
Siddha science also tells us that man generally takes 15 breaths a minute and thus makes 21,600 breaths a day and at this rate he can live for a period of at least 120 years.
Besides the treatment by medicine, there exist Siddha works in Tamil on alchemy or kaya kalpa. As some of the alchemical processes leading to kaya kalpa treatments were dangerous in their administration, the siddhars did not want to teach them to everyone. Although the siddha system might have evolved in Tamil Nadu at an early period, there is reason to believe that it spread to Northern parts of India and is known as Tantric science. .
Kaya kalpam:This wonderful science on longevity – a part of Siddha medicine – is the greatest contribution by Siddhars that is not only original but cannot be found in other system of medicines as and when they were developed .The Siddhars developed ambrosial medicines that prevent death and decay of the body.
These medicines rejuvenate the system and enable one to live for many years on earth with the full enjoyment ever of a youthful body. The Siddhars not only prescribed medicines but also taught “ chara Otta payRchi”, that is art of breathing. The kaRpa medicines together with control of breathing will give not only longevity to a person but will also give his body a youthful appearance. The Siddhars had also identified several herbs that will rejuvenate the body and mind.
In olden days, the siddhars devoted more time in finding out suitable remedies rather than describing the causes of a disease in detail. The scope of kaya kalpa treatment is two- fold: one, to cure diseases and the other to prolong lifespan. The kalpa medicine too.
Kalpa treatment is a weapon preventive as well as constructive. The methods prescribed in Siddha medical science in the treatment of kaya kalpa are as follows:
1.Preservation of vital energy of the body by diverting the internal secretions to the circulation of blood by control of breathing through yoga. 2. Conservation of sperm by using it for regeneration. 3. Use of universal salt such as Muppu prepared by certain Siddhic process for rejuvenation. 4. Use of calcined powers prepared from metal and minerals such as Mercury, Sulphur, Mica, Gold, Copper, Iron, etc. 5. Use of drugs prepared from certain rare Indian herbs.
Many rules and regulations were adopted by siddhars while consuming kaya kalpa drugs. Some other general methods like cleansing of throat; enema, taxation and oil baths were also detailed.
Varma is a separate science prescribed by the siddhars. According to siddha science there are 72000 varma in our body. In the Varma texts, like “Odi Murivu Sari Nool”, there are 108 varma points in our body. A varma point is a place was life force is acting. If it is hurt in a particular manner and with force, signs and symptoms develop according to the site of the point. If these signs and symptoms are not set aright within the stipulated period, death will occur. So these are emergencies, which can be called orthopedic emergencies according to recent medical science specific physiotherapy was indicated for each type of varma. . In fact varmakkalai, as it is called, is the forerunner of now popularly known “acupressure”. Because varmakkalai , is like a two edged knife it was not taught to all and sundry. Hence its popularity waned even though the art itself is well preserved and practiced by specialists to day. Varmam speaks of circulatory system of physic. As treatment it is used to repair blood blockades in body .As self –guarding method it teaches of impairing blood circulatory system. Varmam is like a junction where several blood vessels meet .If you know from where the particular blood vessel comes and to which part it goes then by properly attacking those junctions you can cure or create disease at some other points in the body. Thus it is a double-edged blade. There are 108 such junctions identified in the body. There are mainly three different types of varmam namely 1. Thodu varmam 2. Padu varmam and, 3. Thattu varmam. In addition internal medicines were also indicated. Varma science described the various kinds of fractures, which occur in the body and their cures. This science seems to be the basis for the different types of martial arts like kalari, judo and karate. Plenty of martial arts of tamil siddha or secretly practiced in the kanya kumari area. At there plenty of varma treatments are held by varma asan (master). All varma roots only we see at this place only. All un known symptoms and diseases are only cure through varma treatement.